Intracranial Hemorrhage

Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ICH) is a life-threatening type of stroke caused by bleeding within the brain. Strokes occur when the brain is deprived of blood and oxygen. When blood irritates the brain tissues in any way, it causes swelling, which increases pressure on other brain tissues, reduces blood flow and kills brain cells.

Stroke-related intracerebral haemorrhage (15-30% of strokes) is the 2nd most common and most deadly cause of death.

Various Types of Intracranial Hemorrhage

Mostly 4 types are common:

  • Epidural Hemorrhage: Maybe because of issues in the arteries or veins or because of external head trauma. 
  • Subdural Hemorrhage: Usually occurs when a vessel between the brain and skull is broken or torn and bleeds into the brain's subdural space.
  • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Often occurs because of aneurysms (bulges or weakenings in the walls of arteries), after a blunt head injury, or because of sudden movement changes to the head.
  • Intraparenchymal Hemorrhage: It has various causes, including bleeding in the brain's parenchymal part.

The Symptoms of Intracranial Hemorrhage

The following symptoms and signs develop over time as pressure on the brain increases:

  • Loss of consciousness and drowsiness
  • Worsening headache and vomiting
  • Feeling dizzy and a sense of confusion
  • The pupil size is uneven, and vision is partially impaired
  • Speech is slurred
  • Seizures
  • Lethargy
  • Sudden numbness of the face, and limbs- usually on one side, or having the opposite side of the body head injury- paralyzed.

If you see these signs, make sure to see a healthcare provider. You can request an appointment at Apollo Cradle & Children’s Hospital, Amritsar. Call 1860 500 4424 to book an appointment.

What can Cause Intracranial Hemorrhage?

There are several causes: 

  • Demographics: Those above 55 are more likely to have a protein buildup within artery walls known as amyloid angiopathy, leading to ICH. Also, men are more likely to suffer from this condition.
  • Medications and Drugs: Heparin, warfarin, and other blood thinners used to prevent clots in heart and stroke conditions may cause ICH. Consumption of illicit drugs, such as alcohol and cocaine, may also contribute.
  • Inherited bleeding disorders: haemophilia, sickle cell anaemia, DIC, thrombocytopenia.
  • Internal Bodily Issues: The presence of liver disease increases the risk of blood clots, leading to ICH. Issues such as tiny arteries in the brain bursting because of hypertension, aneurysms, metastatic tumours, and angiomas tumours can bleed into the brain: these situations can all lead to ICH.
  • External Bodily Issues: In the case of head trauma, fractures of the skull and penetrating wounds (gunshots) can damage an artery and cause bleeding.
  • ICH resulting from unknown causes: spontaneous ICH.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

If you notice that the person has had a blow to the head, lost consciousness, or has persistent and worsening headaches, you should immediately contact a healthcare provider. 

You should also look out for any physical, mental and/ or emotional changes after the head blow.

Risk Factors associated with Intracranial Hemorrhage

Risk factors of Intracranial Hemorrhage are: 

  • Genetic hypertension
  • Smoking and drug-usage
  • Excessive alcohol consumption
  • Hypocholesterolemia
  • Other diseases such as Chronic Kidney issues, liver issues, etc.

Possible Complications

Some patients can completely recover after a haemorrhage while some face other issues such as more strokes, lack of brain function, cognitive decline, seizures, or other side effects from the medication. It can also lead to various forms of disabilities.

Treatment for Intracranial Hemorrhage 

Treatment for ICH depends on the location, cause, and extent of the bleeding in the brain. The treatment may be to save the patient's life, relieve the symptoms, or prevent further complications. Doctors may perform surgery to remove the swelling, prevent bleeding, or remove the clot.

Healthcare providers may use certain imaging techniques such as Computed Tomography, CT- to see the areas of the brain that may be bleeding and Magnetic Resonance Imagery, MRI, to check the soft brain tissues. These measures help confirm the location cause, and extent of bleeding and swelling.

Medications, such as painkillers, corticosteroids, or osmotics are also prescribed to reduce swelling. Anticonvulsants are also used to control seizures. 

Request an appointment at Apollo Cradle, Amritsar - Abadi Court Road. Call 1860-500-1066 to book an appointment.

1. What is the most common cause of intracranial hemorrhage?

Hypertension is one of the most common causes.

2. Can one feel the brain bleeding?

Depending upon the area of the brain, the symptoms may differ. Some of the signs are sudden tingling, paralysis of limbs, and very persistent headaches.

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