Hypoglycemia means lower than normal blood sugar level (>130 mg/dl), and hyperglycemia means higher than normal blood sugar level (<130 mg/dl). Both are metabolic disorders with different causes and symptoms. Read till the end and know more.



  • Increased thirst and hunger
  • Frequent urination
  • Blurred vision
  • Fatigue or tiredness
  • Dry mouth
  • Sugar cravings (especially after a meal)

It may take many months to notice symptoms, and if your blood sugar levels remain high for a long period, you may develop diabetes mellitus type 2. But, if it goes unnoticed for a long time, it may lead to several complications. So, if you have a family history of diabetes, it is advised to get your sugar levels tested in your early 20s.


Since your brain depends totally on glucose for functioning, a low blood sugar level may manifest symptoms associated with the brain, such as:

  • Dizziness
  • Confusion
  • Anxiety
  • Fatigue
  • Dryness and numbness of the mouth
  • Shakiness
  • Slurred speech
  • Loss of coordination
  • Blurred vision

Most of the symptoms of hypoglycemia are acute. So, if you experience any of these, it is advised that you contact your doctor immediately because it may damage the brain and result in a coma.



Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas that helps cells to absorb the glucose from the blood. But, when your pancreas produces insulin and your cells fail to respond to it, the glucose in the blood remains high. The causes for this may include:

  1. Genetics
  2. Sedentary lifestyle
  3. Autoimmune disorder
  4. Steroids/immunosuppressants
  5. Inadequate diabetes medicine
  6. Certain infections like pneumonia
  7. Surgery
  8. Pregnancy


When you are starving or in a stressful situation, your cells tend to take in more glucose (than usual), resulting in low blood sugar levels. The causes may include:

  1. Anxiety
  2. The situation of fright or flight
  3. Starving
  4. Taking too much insulin/diabetes medicine
  5. Alcohol
  6. Long intense/vigorous workout sessions

When to See a Doctor?

Both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia are risky conditions as they can result in organ damage and coma if not treated early. If hyperglycemia is not treated for a long time, it results in eye damage, kidney damage and nervous issues. If hypoglycemia is not treated within a few minutes, it may result in brain damage and coma. So, at the first notice of symptoms, visit your doctor.

Risk Factors


  • Genetics
  • Obesity
  • Pregnancy
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • History of gestational diabetes
  • PCOS
  • High blood pressure / Cholesterol


  • Weight loss
  • Heavy workout
  • Age
  • Irregular eating patterns
  • Injecting too much insulin
  • Antidepressants
  • Liver problems



  1. Type 2 Diabetes
  2. Vision loss
  3. Kidney damage
  4. Neuropathy
  5. Cardiovascular Diseases


  1. Seizures
  2. Coma
  3. Brain damage
  4. Death


Hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia can be prevented by following a proper diet, meal time, workout and sleep.


Hypoglycemia occurs acutely and should be taken care of immediately. You can take sugar or chocolate to bring your sugar levels back to normal. However, seeking professional medical assistance after gaining consciousness is advised.

Hyperglycemia can be treated by taking medicines, depending on your sugar levels. But, any complications like retinopathy, nephropathy or neuropathy require professional medical assistance.  

Hypoglycemia and Hyperglycemia are common in an Indian household and require immediate medical attention. It may appear normal initially but can result in multiple organ damage and decreased quality of life. So, visit your doctor and get treatment now!

Request an appointment at Apollo Cradle, Amritsar - Abadi Court Road. Call 1860-500-1066 to book an appointment.

1. Does it mean I have diabetes if my blood sugar level is high?

An acute spike in blood sugar level does not mean you are diabetic. It could be due to heavy meals. But if it stays high for several months, it could imply that you could have diabetes.

2. Why do I have a low blood sugar level?

Low blood sugar levels may be due to:
1. Stress
2. Skipping a meal / not eating enough
3. Heavy workout
4. Certain medication
5. Increased insulin dosage/diabetes medication

3. If my mom and dad have diabetes, does it mean I will have it too?

You have a high chance of getting diabetes in the latter part of your life. But you can bring it down by following a healthy diet, physical activity and an active lifestyle.

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