Intracranial Haemorrhage

Intracranial haemorrhage is a medical emergency that can have life-altering consequences. The disruption of blood flow in the brain can cause sudden headaches, vomiting, seizures, weakness, and confusion. It is a serious condition that requires immediate medical attention and long-term care. While knowledge of the causes and treatments of intracranial haemorrhage is growing, it remains an unpredictable and often devastating medical condition. Here we aim to provide an overview of this complex issue, from causes to treatments and care plans.

Types of Intracranial Haemorrhage

There are various types of intracranial haemorrhage. Subarachnoid haemorrhage is a type where blood accumulates in the space between the brain and the skull beneath the arachnoid membrane. Intracerebral haemorrhage is when blood enters and collects in the brain tissue itself. An epidural hematoma occurs when arteries outside the skull rupture, causing bleeding between the skull and the dura mater. A subdural hematoma is similar but involves veins instead of arteries. Finally, intraventricular haemorrhage happens when there is bleeding into one or more ventricles of the brain.

Symptoms of Intracranial Haemorrhage

Intracranial haemorrhage is a potentially life-threatening condition. Symptoms can include:

  • a sudden, severe headache;
  • nausea and vomiting;
  • seizures;
  • confusion or changes in behaviour;
  • loss of consciousness;
  • vision changes like blurred vision or seeing double;
  • difficulty speaking, understanding speech, or forming words;
  • weakness on one side of the body, and
  • difficulty walking.

In infants and young children, these changes may be more difficult to detect but can include irritability, lethargy, vomiting, seizures, and a bulging fontanelle. If any of these symptoms occur, seek medical attention immediately.

When should one see a doctor for Intracranial Haemorrhage?

If one experiences any of the following symptoms, they should seek medical advice immediately: severe headache, loss of consciousness, seizures, nausea or vomiting, confusion and difficulty speaking, vision changes, weakness or numbness in the face or limbs. A doctor may also recommend further testing after a physical examination if they suspect intracranial haemorrhage. This could include imaging scans such as a CT scan or MRI to assess any damage. It is important to get help as soon as possible if these signs are present, as they can be life-threatening.

Treatment options for Intracranial Haemorrhage

Treatment options for intracranial haemorrhage depend on the cause, location, and severity of the bleeding. Emergency medical intervention is needed to reduce pressure within the skull and manage complications. Surgery may be required to remove a blood clot or repair any damage to a blood vessel. Medication can be used to manage seizures, control hypertension, and reduce swelling of the brain. Endovascular treatment may be used to repair damaged blood vessels using minimally invasive techniques such as thrombolysis or embolization. Rehabilitation is important post-treatment to help with physical, cognitive, and emotional recovery.

How can Intracranial Haemorrhage be prevented?

Living a healthy lifestyle is the best way to prevent intracranial haemorrhage. Taking measures to maintain good blood pressure and cholesterol levels, avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, getting regular exercise, and eating balanced meals are all important steps. Regular check-ups with your doctor can help you identify any risk factors that might increase the likelihood of developing this condition. Additionally, some medications can increase the risk of intracranial haemorrhage; talk to your doctor about whether any medicines you are taking may pose a risk. Finally, always wear a helmet when engaging in activities with an increased risk of head trauma.


Intracranial haemorrhage is a serious medical condition that can have life-threatening consequences. It is caused by a rupture of the blood vessels in the brain and can be caused by a variety of factors, including trauma or medical conditions such as high blood pressure or stroke. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential for a successful recovery and to minimise long-term complications. Therefore, it is important to seek prompt medical attention if any symptoms of this condition are suspected. With the right care and support, intracranial haemorrhage can be managed effectively, and patients can enjoy improved health outcomes.

Request an appointment at Apollo Cradle, DELHI-NCR - Moti Nagar. Call 1860-500-1066 to book an appointment.

1. What are the common causes of intracranial haemorrhage?

Intracranial haemorrhage can be caused by a variety of factors, including trauma to the head, aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, high blood pressure, and defects in the blood vessels in the brain.

2. Are there long-term effects associated with intracranial haemorrhage?

Depending on where in the brain it occurs and how severe it is, a person who has had an intracranial haemorrhage may experience long-term effects such as paralysis or other physical impairments; cognitive difficulties; personality changes; seizures; headaches; visual disturbances; communication problems.

3. How often should individuals who have had an intracranial haemorrhage be monitored?

Individuals who have had an intracranial haemorrhage should be monitored regularly by their physician for any changes in symptoms or complications from the initial event.

4. Are there any risk factors that increase a person’s chance of having an intracranial haemorrhage?

Risk factors for developing an intracranial haemorrhage include hypertension, smoking, atherosclerosis, genetic conditions such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and certain types of medication use.

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