Glycemia – or the presence of glucose in the blood, is the key component of how we (our brain) function daily. Any fluctuation in these levels, up or down (hyper or hypo) and we become disoriented.

Based on the National Diabetes Statistics report, about 37.3 million Americans alone, which is about 1 in 10 suffer from diabetes. Strikingly, about one in five of them do not know that they suffer from the disease before it is too late. These pacing statistics have led to an altogether global burden of costs for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

What do the terms mean?

Hyperglycemia and Hypoglycemia are two sides of our blood sugar level indication, commonly known as ‘diabetes’. To simplify, hyperglycemia is a condition wherein the blood sugar levels are higher than normal standards (60mg/dl- 140mg/dl or 3.3 mmol/L- 7mmol/L). However, Hypoglycemia is a condition wherein the blood sugar levels drop below normal.

In both cases, the body may lose its ability to process daily operations. Hence, knowing the symptoms and treatment pathways is crucial for each.




a.      Extreme thirst and urination

Extreme hunger

b.      Unintentional and frequent weight loss.

Headaches, anxiety, irritability, and pale face

c.      Nausea and stomach ache

Shivering, cold sweats

d.      Fatigue, loss of muscles, dehydration, slow healing, and low immunity against common infections.

Dizziness, shakiness, and weakness

e.      Difficulties in seeing for too long

Rapid pulse over a period

f.       Poor concentration

Poor concentration, confusion, brain fog


It’s believed that hypoglycemia is usually caused as a side effect of the treatment of diabetes type 1.


  1. Diabetes: When your body is not able to produce insulin (type 1 diabetes) or you become unresponsive to insulin (type 2 diabetes), your blood sugar regulation gets disturbed. Subsequent uptake of medications or insulin or even eating less than usual during the medication period may cause hypoglycemia
  2. Alcohol: In case you have diabetes, drinking excessively without eating well can keep the liver from making the glucagon hormone, hence leading to low blood sugar.
  3. Other critical illnesses: Conditions like hepatitis or cirrhosis may infect your kidney or heart which can lead to the progression of hypoglycemia. In such a condition, your body is unable to release the medications you’re taking.
  4. Insulin overproduction: When your pancreas starts to produce a lot of insulin, it might result in hypoglycemia.
  5. Hormone deficiencies: Both adrenal and pituitary tumours may lead to a dysregulation of the production of certain hormones, leading to a disturbance in glucose metabolism.


  1. Physical stress: When your body is under physical stress, it’s using up the stored glucose. But, if you do not eat well enough post the stress, your body will experience a reduction in your blood sugar. Also, adding steroids to your diet can worsen your condition.
  2. Dawn phenomenon: The phenomenon leads to high blood sugar early in the morning (for people with diabetes), because of changes in hormone levels in your body.
  3. Trauma and associated illnesses: Trauma induces the production of stress hormones, mainly influenced by glucagon, in turn enhancing oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and finally hyperglycemia.

What risk factors lie around you?


  • Family with a history of the disease
  • Overweight
  • High cholesterol/ high blood pressure


  • Not eating on time
  • Skipping meals
  • Increasing physical activity
  • Adjusting medications, excess insulin
  • Excessive alcohol

How can you treat your conditions?

Managing both type1 diabetes and type2 diabetes involves including insulin and oral medications (in addition to insulin for type 2 diabetes) to become a major part of your diet.

Hyperglycemia: Maintaining a healthy weight, avoiding smoking, or drinking, and exercising regularly will help you manage the condition much better. Moreover, you can get nutrition counselling to get on track with your eating habits.

Hypoglycemia: Eat or drink about 20 grams of fast carbohydrates, to treat the condition immediately. These can be glucose tablets, fruit juice, gel, or regular soda. Along with that, you need to recheck your blood sugar levels 15 minutes post your treatment. For severe cases, you need to get a glucagon kit. If that does not help, you need to call for medical help.

What does living with hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia look like?

Diabetes is an unfortunate and complicated state of the body. Yet, you can manage it on your own with only a few educational resources, tips, and changes in eating habits.

A. Education Resources and more

Several organizations around the globe aid you during your journey to managing your diabetes. Staying in touch with support groups improves your quality of life, and gives you a sense of empowerment.

  • Diabetes self-management education and support (DSMES)
  • Association of Diabetes Care and Education Specialists (ADCES)
  • College Diabetes Network
  • Endocrine Society
  • National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) 

B. Connection with your mental health

Depression is more than just a bad phase of life or a bad mood. The illness can cause a lack of interest in daily activities, and the health of your body directly affects your mind-body connection. You can treat your anxiety with certain approaches, including getting a consultation with your endocrinologist, or mental health counsellor, or joining support groups.

Request an appointment at Apollo Cradle, DELHI-NCR - Moti Nagar. Call 1860-500-1066 to book an appointment.

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