Gynaecology

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            [blog_title] => Preparing Together: A Dad's Handbook for Pregnancy
            [metaTitle] => Preparing Together: A Dad's Handbook for Pregnancy
            [metaDescription] => Becoming a father for the first time is an amazing journey, though it can also feel overwhelming. It will deeply affect you personally, potentially leading to unexpected changes in various aspects of your life.
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Becoming a father for the first time is an amazing journey, though it can also feel overwhelming. It will deeply affect you personally, potentially leading to unexpected changes in various aspects of your life. Feeling uncertain or anxious as you navigate caring for your newborn and adapting to your new role is completely normal.

Remember, every father has walked in your shoes as a first-time dad, learning and growing step by step. Taking time to prepare before your baby arrives can ease future concerns and allow you to fully cherish those precious early moments with your child.

While pregnancy is often focused on the mom's physical experience, it's crucial for dads to be actively involved in emotional preparation as well. Although only the mom experiences the physical aspects, there's more to pregnancy than just that. Emotional readiness during pregnancy is equally important for dads to participate in and support.

  • Prepare emotionally: It's crucial for fathers to be emotionally prepared for the arrival of a baby, just like mothers. Throughout the nine months of pregnancy, dads have the opportunity to educate themselves about babies and what to anticipate, particularly if they are new to being around young children. Get involved in every aspect of the pregnancy: attend doctor’s appointments with your partner, participate in shopping for baby essentials, assist with decorating the nursery, assemble the crib, discuss baby names, and more. The more actively engaged you are in these preparations, the more connected and involved you'll feel in the journey ahead.
  • Work together: Sometimes, despite our intentions for equal relationships, plans can veer off course. This is a crucial moment to reassess how tasks are divided at home. Even with both partners working outside the home, studies indicate that the majority of household chores still fall to women. Introducing a baby into your lives will bring a significant increase in responsibilities, alongside immense joys. During pregnancy, it's beneficial to discuss with your partner how you anticipate these changes and how you can collectively manage new expectations. Sometimes, adjustments in responsibilities may need to happen sooner to support the pregnancy. While many pregnant women feel well, some may face physical challenges that limit their abilities, requiring you to step in more before the baby arrives.
  • Talk about your worries: While pregnancy is often seen as a joyful period, many fathers experience concerns about various aspects: finances, especially transitioning from dual incomes to one; the health of the baby and mother; managing new responsibilities, and more. It's important to openly discuss these worries with your partner. Additionally, seeking advice from other new fathers can provide valuable insights and tips on navigating parenthood. Remember, reaching out for support demonstrates strength and can be immensely helpful during this transformative time.
  • Check your employee benefits: Many companies offer paternity leave for new dads. Is this a benefit at your company? If so, how long is it? What are the policies around time off for prenatal visits? Fully research your options.
  • Stay healthy together: Support your pregnant partner and the health of your baby by preparing and enjoying nutritious meals together, and by exercising together—such as taking walks or doing yoga as recommended by the doctor—throughout the pregnancy.
  • Be proactive: Given that moms bear most of the physical demands, your partner may greatly appreciate your proactive efforts in offering assistance around the house, with the pregnancy, or in preparing for the baby. Instead of waiting to be asked, actively seek out ways where you can contribute and make a positive impact.
  • Planning for the birth: There are many factors to consider regarding the birth itself. Who will be there? What role will you take? Attending childbirth classes together can greatly help address your concerns and prepare you both for the big day.
  • Be present: Sometimes your physical and emotional presence is all that is needed to help share the pregnancy.

Don’t limit your involvement in this significant family milestone. Engage fully and enjoy the profound benefits of this important time in your life and your family's. Be kind to yourself about what you're unable to do; every soon-to-be busy father must find a balance that suits his schedule and family needs. Celebrate your contributions and aim to be present for as many important milestones as you can.

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Becoming a father for the first time is an amazing journey, though it can also feel overwhelming. It will deeply affect you personally, potentially leading to unexpected changes in various aspects of your life. Feeling uncertain or anxious as you navigate caring for your newborn and adapting to your new role is completely normal.

Remember, every father has walked in your shoes as a first-time dad, learning and growing step by step. Taking time to prepare before your baby arrives can ease future concerns and allow you to fully cherish those precious early moments with your child.

While pregnancy is often focused on the mom's physical experience, it's crucial for dads to be actively involved in emotional preparation as well. Although only the mom experiences the physical aspects, there's more to pregnancy than just that. Emotional readiness during pregnancy is equally important for dads to participate in and support.

  • Prepare emotionally: It's crucial for fathers to be emotionally prepared for the arrival of a baby, just like mothers. Throughout the nine months of pregnancy, dads have the opportunity to educate themselves about babies and what to anticipate, particularly if they are new to being around young children. Get involved in every aspect of the pregnancy: attend doctor’s appointments with your partner, participate in shopping for baby essentials, assist with decorating the nursery, assemble the crib, discuss baby names, and more. The more actively engaged you are in these preparations, the more connected and involved you'll feel in the journey ahead.
  • Work together: Sometimes, despite our intentions for equal relationships, plans can veer off course. This is a crucial moment to reassess how tasks are divided at home. Even with both partners working outside the home, studies indicate that the majority of household chores still fall to women. Introducing a baby into your lives will bring a significant increase in responsibilities, alongside immense joys. During pregnancy, it's beneficial to discuss with your partner how you anticipate these changes and how you can collectively manage new expectations. Sometimes, adjustments in responsibilities may need to happen sooner to support the pregnancy. While many pregnant women feel well, some may face physical challenges that limit their abilities, requiring you to step in more before the baby arrives.
  • Talk about your worries: While pregnancy is often seen as a joyful period, many fathers experience concerns about various aspects: finances, especially transitioning from dual incomes to one; the health of the baby and mother; managing new responsibilities, and more. It's important to openly discuss these worries with your partner. Additionally, seeking advice from other new fathers can provide valuable insights and tips on navigating parenthood. Remember, reaching out for support demonstrates strength and can be immensely helpful during this transformative time.
  • Check your employee benefits: Many companies offer paternity leave for new dads. Is this a benefit at your company? If so, how long is it? What are the policies around time off for prenatal visits? Fully research your options.
  • Stay healthy together: Support your pregnant partner and the health of your baby by preparing and enjoying nutritious meals together, and by exercising together—such as taking walks or doing yoga as recommended by the doctor—throughout the pregnancy.
  • Be proactive: Given that moms bear most of the physical demands, your partner may greatly appreciate your proactive efforts in offering assistance around the house, with the pregnancy, or in preparing for the baby. Instead of waiting to be asked, actively seek out ways where you can contribute and make a positive impact.
  • Planning for the birth: There are many factors to consider regarding the birth itself. Who will be there? What role will you take? Attending childbirth classes together can greatly help address your concerns and prepare you both for the big day.
  • Be present: Sometimes your physical and emotional presence is all that is needed to help share the pregnancy.

Don’t limit your involvement in this significant family milestone. Engage fully and enjoy the profound benefits of this important time in your life and your family's. Be kind to yourself about what you're unable to do; every soon-to-be busy father must find a balance that suits his schedule and family needs. Celebrate your contributions and aim to be present for as many important milestones as you can.

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Preparing Together: A Dad's Handbook for Pregnancy

Preparing Together: A Dad's Handbook for Pregnancy

June 16, 2024

Becoming a father for the first time is an amazing journey, though it ...

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            [blog_title] => What Is Difference Between PCOD vs PCOS?
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Are PCOD and PCOS the same? A lot of women get confused between the two, often using the two terms interchangeably, especially when trying to understand the relation between PCOS, PCOD and pregnancy. In reality, both the conditions are different, in spite of the similarities like being related to the ovaries and causing hormonal disturbances.

Let’s take a closer look at these two conditions and what makes them different from each other.

Understanding the difference between PCOD & PCOS
 
What is PCOD?

All women have two ovaries that release an egg alternately every month. The ovaries produce androgens or male hormones in minute quantities. PCOD (Polycystic Ovarian Disease) is a condition where the ovaries release a lot of immature or partially-mature eggs which eventually turn into cysts. Some of the common symptoms are abdominal weight gain, irregular periods, male pattern hair loss and infertility. In this condition, the ovaries usually become enlarged and secrete large amounts of androgens that can cause havoc with a woman’s fertility and her body. The best treatment for PCOD often looks at reducing the severity of such symptoms.

What is PCOS?

In women with PCOS (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome), the ovaries produce higher levels of androgen than usual, which interferes with development and release of the eggs. Some of the eggs develop into cysts, which are the little sacs filled with liquid. Instead of being released during ovulation, these cysts build up in the ovaries and at times even get enlarged.

Consult with our Endocrinologist, Experts Trained in PCOS

Consult our Doctors

How are the Two Conditions Different?

Nature of the condition: PCOS is a serious condition. PCOD is not considered to be truly a disease since with the right diet and exercise, it can be managed. PCOS, on the other hand, is a metabolic disorder.

1. Causative Factors:

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is a disorder of the endocrine system, while PCOD is a condition developed by the imbalance of hormones. It is believed that hormonal imbalances and genetics play an essential role in both conditions. The theory is that high levels of male hormones prevent ovaries from producing hormones and producing eggs normally. Insulin resistance and inflammation have also been linked to excess androgen production.

2. Occurrence:

PCOD is more common in comparison. Almost one-third of women around the globe suffer from Polycystic Ovarian Disease. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome has a lower number of patients.

3. Impact of PCOD & PCOS on Pregnancy:

Polycystic Ovarian Disease does not lead to infertility in all women and shouldn’t be considered an obstacle towards pregnancy. In about 80 per cent of cases, women can possibly conceive with a little aid and experience a smooth pregnancy. For women with PCOS, conception can be a challenge due to the hormonal irregularities. To conceive, one should have balanced hormonal cycles that can create an environment for the ovum to release and infuse with the sperm post-intercourse. Since the levels of androgens in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome are very high, if one falls under the syndrome, conception can become a bit of a challenge.

Maintaining good health is essential to prevent as well as treat hormonal disturbances and conditions. The best treatment for PCOD and PCOS will include timely diagnosis and the appropriate steps that can help overcome the syndrome and make the journey towards conception a success.

Our PCOD/PCOS Treatment expert Doctors

Dr. Jasmin Rath, MBBS, MD, Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Apollo Cradle Hyderabad – Jubilee Hills

Dr. D D Verma, MBBS, MS, Apollo Cradle New Delhi – Indirapuram

womens day offer

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Are PCOD and PCOS the same? A lot of women get confused between the two, often using the two terms interchangeably, especially when trying to understand the relation between PCOS, PCOD and pregnancy. In reality, both the conditions are different, in spite of the similarities like being related to the ovaries and causing hormonal disturbances.

Let’s take a closer look at these two conditions and what makes them different from each other.

Understanding the difference between PCOD & PCOS
 
What is PCOD?

All women have two ovaries that release an egg alternately every month. The ovaries produce androgens or male hormones in minute quantities. PCOD (Polycystic Ovarian Disease) is a condition where the ovaries release a lot of immature or partially-mature eggs which eventually turn into cysts. Some of the common symptoms are abdominal weight gain, irregular periods, male pattern hair loss and infertility. In this condition, the ovaries usually become enlarged and secrete large amounts of androgens that can cause havoc with a woman’s fertility and her body. The best treatment for PCOD often looks at reducing the severity of such symptoms.

What is PCOS?

In women with PCOS (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome), the ovaries produce higher levels of androgen than usual, which interferes with development and release of the eggs. Some of the eggs develop into cysts, which are the little sacs filled with liquid. Instead of being released during ovulation, these cysts build up in the ovaries and at times even get enlarged.

Consult with our Endocrinologist, Experts Trained in PCOS

Consult our Doctors

How are the Two Conditions Different?

Nature of the condition: PCOS is a serious condition. PCOD is not considered to be truly a disease since with the right diet and exercise, it can be managed. PCOS, on the other hand, is a metabolic disorder.

1. Causative Factors:

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is a disorder of the endocrine system, while PCOD is a condition developed by the imbalance of hormones. It is believed that hormonal imbalances and genetics play an essential role in both conditions. The theory is that high levels of male hormones prevent ovaries from producing hormones and producing eggs normally. Insulin resistance and inflammation have also been linked to excess androgen production.

2. Occurrence:

PCOD is more common in comparison. Almost one-third of women around the globe suffer from Polycystic Ovarian Disease. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome has a lower number of patients.

3. Impact of PCOD & PCOS on Pregnancy:

Polycystic Ovarian Disease does not lead to infertility in all women and shouldn’t be considered an obstacle towards pregnancy. In about 80 per cent of cases, women can possibly conceive with a little aid and experience a smooth pregnancy. For women with PCOS, conception can be a challenge due to the hormonal irregularities. To conceive, one should have balanced hormonal cycles that can create an environment for the ovum to release and infuse with the sperm post-intercourse. Since the levels of androgens in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome are very high, if one falls under the syndrome, conception can become a bit of a challenge.

Maintaining good health is essential to prevent as well as treat hormonal disturbances and conditions. The best treatment for PCOD and PCOS will include timely diagnosis and the appropriate steps that can help overcome the syndrome and make the journey towards conception a success.

Our PCOD/PCOS Treatment expert Doctors

Dr. Jasmin Rath, MBBS, MD, Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Apollo Cradle Hyderabad – Jubilee Hills

Dr. D D Verma, MBBS, MS, Apollo Cradle New Delhi – Indirapuram

womens day offer

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What Is Difference Between PCOD vs PCOS?

What Is Difference Between PCOD vs PCOS?

April 30, 2024

Are PCOD and PCOS the same? A lot of women get confused between the ...

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What is Endometriosis
Endometriosis is a gynaecological condition. It occurs when the tissue lining that usually occurs inside a uterus, to prepare the lining of a womb for a foetus, starts growing elsewhere in the abdominal region. This lining is usually dissolved when a woman gets her monthly menstrual cycle. This endometrial tissue comprises glands, blood cells, and connective tissue. Over 150 million women worldwide experience this condition, which affects their personal life and their capacity to function normally
What Are the Symptoms of Endometriosis?
  • Severe menstrual cramps
  • Long-term lower-back and pelvic pain
  • Periods lasting longer than 7 days
  • Heavy menstrual bleeding, where the pad or tampon needs changing every 1 to 2 hours
  • Bowel and urinary problems including pain, diarrhoea, constipation, and bloating
  • Bloody stool or urine
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Fatigue
  • Pain during intercourse
  • Spotting or bleeding between periods
Endometriosis Surgery

Conservative surgery: If you have endometriosis and are trying to become pregnant, surgery to remove as much endometriosis as possible while preserving your uterus and ovaries may increase your chances of success. If you have severe pain from endometriosis, you may also benefit from surgery however, endometriosis and pain may return.

The procedure may be done laparoscopically or through open abdominal surgery in more extensive cases.

Assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization, to help you become pregnant are sometimes suggested if conservative surgery is ineffective.

Pain Management

Pain medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or naproxen may be prescribed to help ease painful menstrual cramps.

Getting regular exercise can help relieve symptoms.

Hormone Therapy

Supplemental hormones are sometimes effective in reducing or eliminating the pain of endometriosis. It may recur after stopping the course of therapy.

The Impact of Endometriosis:

Often, the discomfort, pain, and stress caused by endometriosis can impact other areas of a woman’s life including her work, her interpersonal relationships, her expenses, and her emotional wellbeing.

Every area of her functional life is impacted, leaving her stressed, anxious, irritable and in pain. Our specialists at Apollo Cradle also counsel them and address their multiple challenges.

Find the Right Doctor for Endometriosis At Apollo Cradle

Women are always afraid to speak about their discomfort related to gynaecological issues. They rarely share it with close friends or even their family physicians, unless she is also a woman. That is why, a trusted and renowned gynaecology clinic is the safest place a woman should visit, to seek treatment for Endometriosis from a specialist in this field.

Apollo Cradle has a team of highly qualified doctors who are experts in handling gynaecological conditions. This includes Endometriosis specialists, who have vast experience and an impeccable track record. They not only understand the sensitivity of the issue, but they also guide a patient with compassion and understanding, while explaining the intricacies of the treatment to them.

Consult our Doctors
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What is Endometriosis
Endometriosis is a gynaecological condition. It occurs when the tissue lining that usually occurs inside a uterus, to prepare the lining of a womb for a foetus, starts growing elsewhere in the abdominal region. This lining is usually dissolved when a woman gets her monthly menstrual cycle. This endometrial tissue comprises glands, blood cells, and connective tissue. Over 150 million women worldwide experience this condition, which affects their personal life and their capacity to function normally
What Are the Symptoms of Endometriosis?
  • Severe menstrual cramps
  • Long-term lower-back and pelvic pain
  • Periods lasting longer than 7 days
  • Heavy menstrual bleeding, where the pad or tampon needs changing every 1 to 2 hours
  • Bowel and urinary problems including pain, diarrhoea, constipation, and bloating
  • Bloody stool or urine
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Fatigue
  • Pain during intercourse
  • Spotting or bleeding between periods
Endometriosis Surgery

Conservative surgery: If you have endometriosis and are trying to become pregnant, surgery to remove as much endometriosis as possible while preserving your uterus and ovaries may increase your chances of success. If you have severe pain from endometriosis, you may also benefit from surgery however, endometriosis and pain may return.

The procedure may be done laparoscopically or through open abdominal surgery in more extensive cases.

Assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization, to help you become pregnant are sometimes suggested if conservative surgery is ineffective.

Pain Management

Pain medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or naproxen may be prescribed to help ease painful menstrual cramps.

Getting regular exercise can help relieve symptoms.

Hormone Therapy

Supplemental hormones are sometimes effective in reducing or eliminating the pain of endometriosis. It may recur after stopping the course of therapy.

The Impact of Endometriosis:

Often, the discomfort, pain, and stress caused by endometriosis can impact other areas of a woman’s life including her work, her interpersonal relationships, her expenses, and her emotional wellbeing.

Every area of her functional life is impacted, leaving her stressed, anxious, irritable and in pain. Our specialists at Apollo Cradle also counsel them and address their multiple challenges.

Find the Right Doctor for Endometriosis At Apollo Cradle

Women are always afraid to speak about their discomfort related to gynaecological issues. They rarely share it with close friends or even their family physicians, unless she is also a woman. That is why, a trusted and renowned gynaecology clinic is the safest place a woman should visit, to seek treatment for Endometriosis from a specialist in this field.

Apollo Cradle has a team of highly qualified doctors who are experts in handling gynaecological conditions. This includes Endometriosis specialists, who have vast experience and an impeccable track record. They not only understand the sensitivity of the issue, but they also guide a patient with compassion and understanding, while explaining the intricacies of the treatment to them.

Consult our Doctors
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Endometriosis Treatment & Surgery

Endometriosis Treatment & Surgery

April 29, 2024

What is Endometriosis Endometriosis is a gynaecological co...

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Suction and Evacuation is a surgical procedure in which the cervix is dilated or opened, and vacuum or suction is used to remove or in other words ‘evacuate’ tissue from the uterus. Other names of Suction and Evacuation are Suction Aspiration or Vacuum Aspiration. This is a method which is mainly used to remove uterine contents from the uterus through the cervix. It may be used as a method of an induced abortion procedure, after miscarriage or as a procedure to get a sample for endometrial biopsy. The rate of infection is very low as compared to any other surgical abortion procedure. Normally, there is no need of being hospitalized or staying overnight in the doctor’s clinic or hospital after the surgery. All the abortion procedures are out-patient.

Suction and Evacuation vs Medication Abortion

Medication abortion is the termination of pregnancy by taking oral pills or medicines. The number of women who are choosing this method of abortion is increasing at quite a rapid rate but aspiration abortion, surgical or suction and evacuation abortion is currently the most common method used for abortions during the first twelve weeks of pregnancy. This is due to easier access and higher success rates. These are some of the reasons why women choose aspiration abortion over medication abortion. Besides, a surgical abortion takes less time and is completed in a specific period of time. The number of visits required for surgical abortion is set beforehand and the procedure is safe for the woman.

When is Suction and Evacuation required?

Sometimes after a miscarriage, this surgery is required for proper removal and cleaning of the uterus. Suction and Evacuation is also frequently required after vaginal delivery to clear and clean the uterus. It is also required after an elective abortion. Apollo Cradle Nehru Place is capable and equipped enough to handle these cases. They have highly trained doctors, nurses and technicians to perform the Suction and Evacuation abortion.

Types of Abortions

There are different types of abortion procedures available that are done in clinics or hospitals. The type of abortion you get will depend almost entirely on how far along you are in your pregnancy. The doctor decides the exact surgery for the patient based on the duration that had gone through in pregnancy.

If you are in your first trimester of pregnancy, vacuum aspiration will be the choice for the abortion. In vacuum aspiration, uterine content is removed through the cervix. This method can be suggested in the cases in induced abortion, a therapeutic procedure after miscarriage or to obtain a sample for endometrial biopsy. If you’re in your second trimester and it has been more than 13 weeks since your last menstrual period, medical practitioner suggests a dilation and evacuation, or D&E. Sometimes this process is a combination of vacuum aspiration, dilation and curettage D&C. In this procedure, there is the use of a surgical instrument like forceps. If you’re in a later stage than that, you might need a dilation and extraction or D&X. An ultrasound is also required for checking the size of the uterus and to determine the number of weeks of pregnancy before a D & X.

Before the Procedure of Suction and Evacuation

After scheduling your appointment, the nurse or the technicians will give you some instruction directly. As abortions are surgeries, your doctor may suggest having fast started around midnight the night before the procedure. Some tests will be conducted after the completion of paperwork and other formalities. You will be asked to answer questions related to your medical history. The tests that will be conducted would include a physical examination, blood test, pregnancy tests, etc. This will also help in checking for uterine, fetal, or placental abnormalities. Some hospitals or clinics may only require a pelvic examination which is conducted physically to check and estimate the size and position of the uterus. Your doctor will discuss the results of all the tests and procedures with you before continuing with the abortion. The various methods of abortion will be discussed, and the doctor will suggest the best method based on the results of the tests and the procedures.

Pain Management

Surgeries and surgical procedures are often associated with pain. In the case of abortion through Suction and Evacuation, your doctor will discuss and suggest about different types of pain reliever available. This will make you feel comfortable during the procedure. Normally local anaesthesia is being given to the patient. In such a case, your abdominal region will be numbed but you’ll be awake during the procedure. An adequate quantity of ibuprofen is usually given to relieve the pain. Sometimes the doctor might also prescribe an oral medication to calm down the patient and keep her awake but relaxed. You can request your doctor for a light or heavy sedation according to your pain tolerance.

The procedure of Suction and Evacuation

While performing the Suction and Evacuation, a Cannula which a thin tube is inserted into the uterus and connected to a source of suction. This source can either be an electric pump or a handheld syringe. The vaginal walls will then be separated by using a speculum. This will bring the cervix in view. This procedure may be a little uncomfortable for the patient, but it should not be painful. Ask your doctor to readjust the speculum if it’s painful. The next step of the procedure is the cleaning of the cervix with an antiseptic solution. A tenaculum, which is a slender instrument with a long handle, is used to open the cervix and keep it in the proper position for the abortion. This might result in some pain, discomfort and cramps. Other medicines will also be injected which might cause some burning sensation. According to some women, ringing in ears and tingling in lips and tongues is also common when medicines are injected into the cervix. With eliminating and inserting, the opening of stretch will be opened to increase the size. Some pressure and cramps can be expected when the cervix is being dilated.

The process of dilating the cervix typically takes less than two minutes. The cannula is then inserted into the uterus through the cervix. If a vacuum machine is used by the doctor, the humming of the machine will be heard while the tissue is being drawn out. It takes only a few minutes to perform the procedure by handheld or electric vacuum. Some cramping and discomfort are normal as the uterus contracts and empties the pregnancy tissue. The cramps range from mild to intense as the blood vessels in the uterus are squeezed. The cramps are reduced immediately after the cannula is removed from the body. The tissue that has been removed from the uterus is examined for completeness. This is done to ensure that no pregnancy tissue is left in the uterus.

After the Procedure of Suction and Evacuation

After the procedure has been completed, a nurse or a technician will make sure that you are feeling okay. You will be moved to a comfortable room or sitting space where you will be required to rest for a while. As sedatives are given to the patients, most patients don’t feel anything for some time after the procedure. It takes about an hour or two to completely recover from the procedure. After this, the effect of the sedatives starts to neutralize, and slight discomfort could be felt. It is advisable to take rest for a 1 or 2 days after the procedure.

Benefits of Suction and Evacuation
  • Vacuum aspiration or suction and evacuation is a procedure that can be done in the early stages of pregnancy. It is the only surgical abortion procedure used for the pregnancy younger than the six weeks.
  • Suction and Evacuation is a less complicated procedure and has fewer complications when compared to D&C.
  • The method is quick, convenient and cost-effective and doesn’t take much time.
  • Less medication is required during the procedure.
  • This facility is easily available even in small clinics and hospitals and is cheap and affordable.
  • This is the only procedure available for doing abortion effectively and efficiently.
  • The patient need not take leave from their workplace for a long period and may resume their normal activities in 2-3 days only.
  • The procedure is safe and secure, and the rate of infection is very low as compared to any other surgical abortion procedure.
  • There is no need of being hospitalized or staying overnight in the doctor’s clinic or hospital after the surgery.
  • It has easier access and higher success rates as compared to other procedures.

Doctors at Apollo Cradle Nehru Place are capable, equipped, trained and always available to help you in case of any complications. They are competent enough to handle these cases. Apollo Cradle Nehru Place has highly trained doctors, nurses, technicians, and other support staff to perform the Suction and Evacuation abortion.

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Suction and Evacuation is a surgical procedure in which the cervix is dilated or opened, and vacuum or suction is used to remove or in other words ‘evacuate’ tissue from the uterus. Other names of Suction and Evacuation are Suction Aspiration or Vacuum Aspiration. This is a method which is mainly used to remove uterine contents from the uterus through the cervix. It may be used as a method of an induced abortion procedure, after miscarriage or as a procedure to get a sample for endometrial biopsy. The rate of infection is very low as compared to any other surgical abortion procedure. Normally, there is no need of being hospitalized or staying overnight in the doctor’s clinic or hospital after the surgery. All the abortion procedures are out-patient.

Suction and Evacuation vs Medication Abortion

Medication abortion is the termination of pregnancy by taking oral pills or medicines. The number of women who are choosing this method of abortion is increasing at quite a rapid rate but aspiration abortion, surgical or suction and evacuation abortion is currently the most common method used for abortions during the first twelve weeks of pregnancy. This is due to easier access and higher success rates. These are some of the reasons why women choose aspiration abortion over medication abortion. Besides, a surgical abortion takes less time and is completed in a specific period of time. The number of visits required for surgical abortion is set beforehand and the procedure is safe for the woman.

When is Suction and Evacuation required?

Sometimes after a miscarriage, this surgery is required for proper removal and cleaning of the uterus. Suction and Evacuation is also frequently required after vaginal delivery to clear and clean the uterus. It is also required after an elective abortion. Apollo Cradle Nehru Place is capable and equipped enough to handle these cases. They have highly trained doctors, nurses and technicians to perform the Suction and Evacuation abortion.

Types of Abortions

There are different types of abortion procedures available that are done in clinics or hospitals. The type of abortion you get will depend almost entirely on how far along you are in your pregnancy. The doctor decides the exact surgery for the patient based on the duration that had gone through in pregnancy.

If you are in your first trimester of pregnancy, vacuum aspiration will be the choice for the abortion. In vacuum aspiration, uterine content is removed through the cervix. This method can be suggested in the cases in induced abortion, a therapeutic procedure after miscarriage or to obtain a sample for endometrial biopsy. If you’re in your second trimester and it has been more than 13 weeks since your last menstrual period, medical practitioner suggests a dilation and evacuation, or D&E. Sometimes this process is a combination of vacuum aspiration, dilation and curettage D&C. In this procedure, there is the use of a surgical instrument like forceps. If you’re in a later stage than that, you might need a dilation and extraction or D&X. An ultrasound is also required for checking the size of the uterus and to determine the number of weeks of pregnancy before a D & X.

Before the Procedure of Suction and Evacuation

After scheduling your appointment, the nurse or the technicians will give you some instruction directly. As abortions are surgeries, your doctor may suggest having fast started around midnight the night before the procedure. Some tests will be conducted after the completion of paperwork and other formalities. You will be asked to answer questions related to your medical history. The tests that will be conducted would include a physical examination, blood test, pregnancy tests, etc. This will also help in checking for uterine, fetal, or placental abnormalities. Some hospitals or clinics may only require a pelvic examination which is conducted physically to check and estimate the size and position of the uterus. Your doctor will discuss the results of all the tests and procedures with you before continuing with the abortion. The various methods of abortion will be discussed, and the doctor will suggest the best method based on the results of the tests and the procedures.

Pain Management

Surgeries and surgical procedures are often associated with pain. In the case of abortion through Suction and Evacuation, your doctor will discuss and suggest about different types of pain reliever available. This will make you feel comfortable during the procedure. Normally local anaesthesia is being given to the patient. In such a case, your abdominal region will be numbed but you’ll be awake during the procedure. An adequate quantity of ibuprofen is usually given to relieve the pain. Sometimes the doctor might also prescribe an oral medication to calm down the patient and keep her awake but relaxed. You can request your doctor for a light or heavy sedation according to your pain tolerance.

The procedure of Suction and Evacuation

While performing the Suction and Evacuation, a Cannula which a thin tube is inserted into the uterus and connected to a source of suction. This source can either be an electric pump or a handheld syringe. The vaginal walls will then be separated by using a speculum. This will bring the cervix in view. This procedure may be a little uncomfortable for the patient, but it should not be painful. Ask your doctor to readjust the speculum if it’s painful. The next step of the procedure is the cleaning of the cervix with an antiseptic solution. A tenaculum, which is a slender instrument with a long handle, is used to open the cervix and keep it in the proper position for the abortion. This might result in some pain, discomfort and cramps. Other medicines will also be injected which might cause some burning sensation. According to some women, ringing in ears and tingling in lips and tongues is also common when medicines are injected into the cervix. With eliminating and inserting, the opening of stretch will be opened to increase the size. Some pressure and cramps can be expected when the cervix is being dilated.

The process of dilating the cervix typically takes less than two minutes. The cannula is then inserted into the uterus through the cervix. If a vacuum machine is used by the doctor, the humming of the machine will be heard while the tissue is being drawn out. It takes only a few minutes to perform the procedure by handheld or electric vacuum. Some cramping and discomfort are normal as the uterus contracts and empties the pregnancy tissue. The cramps range from mild to intense as the blood vessels in the uterus are squeezed. The cramps are reduced immediately after the cannula is removed from the body. The tissue that has been removed from the uterus is examined for completeness. This is done to ensure that no pregnancy tissue is left in the uterus.

After the Procedure of Suction and Evacuation

After the procedure has been completed, a nurse or a technician will make sure that you are feeling okay. You will be moved to a comfortable room or sitting space where you will be required to rest for a while. As sedatives are given to the patients, most patients don’t feel anything for some time after the procedure. It takes about an hour or two to completely recover from the procedure. After this, the effect of the sedatives starts to neutralize, and slight discomfort could be felt. It is advisable to take rest for a 1 or 2 days after the procedure.

Benefits of Suction and Evacuation
  • Vacuum aspiration or suction and evacuation is a procedure that can be done in the early stages of pregnancy. It is the only surgical abortion procedure used for the pregnancy younger than the six weeks.
  • Suction and Evacuation is a less complicated procedure and has fewer complications when compared to D&C.
  • The method is quick, convenient and cost-effective and doesn’t take much time.
  • Less medication is required during the procedure.
  • This facility is easily available even in small clinics and hospitals and is cheap and affordable.
  • This is the only procedure available for doing abortion effectively and efficiently.
  • The patient need not take leave from their workplace for a long period and may resume their normal activities in 2-3 days only.
  • The procedure is safe and secure, and the rate of infection is very low as compared to any other surgical abortion procedure.
  • There is no need of being hospitalized or staying overnight in the doctor’s clinic or hospital after the surgery.
  • It has easier access and higher success rates as compared to other procedures.

Doctors at Apollo Cradle Nehru Place are capable, equipped, trained and always available to help you in case of any complications. They are competent enough to handle these cases. Apollo Cradle Nehru Place has highly trained doctors, nurses, technicians, and other support staff to perform the Suction and Evacuation abortion.

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Suction And Evacuation

Suction And Evacuation

April 29, 2024

Suction and Evacuation is a surgical proc...

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Breast cancer- Be watchful

The most commonly heard type of cancer in women is, Breast Cancer! Every women is more enthusiastic in checking the common signs of breast cancer is breast lumps or tumors. But apart from these common signs, there are also uncommon signs of breast cancer that we usually overlook. Gaining knowledge on the rare signs of breast cancer is always helpful for you. This avoids late diagnosis in advanced stages of cancer. After all an early detection helps in avoiding extensive, painful treatments and also improves the quality of life by reducing the painful days that you suffer while undergoing cancer therapy.

Be watchful about the rare signs of breast cancer

Apollo Cradle has well-qualified experts who are best in diagnosing and managing the breast cancer well before it gets advanced. We have a list of rare signs that you can track and get alert to deal with breast cancer.

Sharp Pain in the upper back

If there is a sharp pain in the upper back that seems to originate from the deeper bones, then it could be an early sign of breast cancer. Remember! Not all upper back pains are considered to be the sign of breast cancer, the pain may also start due to any other underlying conditions.

If the pain subsides after a stretching exercises or physiotherapy, then it would not be a breast cancer sign. Although if the pain remains as such even after physiotherapy then it could be a cause of concern.

Breast pain which is abnormal

Every woman feel the pain in their breast at some or the other point of time in their lives. A general pain in the breasts during the menstruation can be normal. But if the pain is specific and continuous that can be an alarming sign of breast cancer. Therefore, you must understand the difference between what is normal and what is abnormal for you. This helps you identify the pain and lets you understand that you are in need of a medical attention.

Changes in the breast skin

Do check your breasts in the mirror? Doing so will help you in identifying any changes in the breast skin. If any sort of red spots or rashes are noticed then it could be an early sign of inflammatory breast cancer. Flaky skin on the nipple and a discharge from the nipple without any stimulation can be the uncommon warning signs of breast cancer.

Also, check for any dimpling or asymmetry in the breast when you raise or stretch your arms. If anything is found abnormal you must check it out with the healthcare provider.

Sense of Tenderness in the armpits

Tenderness in the armpits can be a sign of breast cancer. Breast cancer in early stages metastasizes to the axillary lymph nodes that are present in the armpits. Swollen lymph nodes could definitely indicate the presence of a tumor in the breast. Therefore, if you find any discomfort, pain or tenderness in the armpits, you can doubt it as an uncommon sign of breast cancer and visit the healthcare provider for the further diagnosis.

By the presented information, you will now be able to point out the uncommon signs of breast cancer. Many of these signs are left unnoticed or overlooked and neglected, assuming them to be normal. However, realizing that those can be the signs of breast cancer can help you visit the experts at Apollo Cradle in a right time, which helps in right diagnosis and right treatment. We at Apollo Cradle, helps you seek the best care at best time to save morbidity and gift you the quality days in your lives.

Never neglect the abnormalities in the breast skin, texture, shape. Be alert, protect your breasts!!!! You deserve them….

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Breast cancer- Be watchful

The most commonly heard type of cancer in women is, Breast Cancer! Every women is more enthusiastic in checking the common signs of breast cancer is breast lumps or tumors. But apart from these common signs, there are also uncommon signs of breast cancer that we usually overlook. Gaining knowledge on the rare signs of breast cancer is always helpful for you. This avoids late diagnosis in advanced stages of cancer. After all an early detection helps in avoiding extensive, painful treatments and also improves the quality of life by reducing the painful days that you suffer while undergoing cancer therapy.

Be watchful about the rare signs of breast cancer

Apollo Cradle has well-qualified experts who are best in diagnosing and managing the breast cancer well before it gets advanced. We have a list of rare signs that you can track and get alert to deal with breast cancer.

Sharp Pain in the upper back

If there is a sharp pain in the upper back that seems to originate from the deeper bones, then it could be an early sign of breast cancer. Remember! Not all upper back pains are considered to be the sign of breast cancer, the pain may also start due to any other underlying conditions.

If the pain subsides after a stretching exercises or physiotherapy, then it would not be a breast cancer sign. Although if the pain remains as such even after physiotherapy then it could be a cause of concern.

Breast pain which is abnormal

Every woman feel the pain in their breast at some or the other point of time in their lives. A general pain in the breasts during the menstruation can be normal. But if the pain is specific and continuous that can be an alarming sign of breast cancer. Therefore, you must understand the difference between what is normal and what is abnormal for you. This helps you identify the pain and lets you understand that you are in need of a medical attention.

Changes in the breast skin

Do check your breasts in the mirror? Doing so will help you in identifying any changes in the breast skin. If any sort of red spots or rashes are noticed then it could be an early sign of inflammatory breast cancer. Flaky skin on the nipple and a discharge from the nipple without any stimulation can be the uncommon warning signs of breast cancer.

Also, check for any dimpling or asymmetry in the breast when you raise or stretch your arms. If anything is found abnormal you must check it out with the healthcare provider.

Sense of Tenderness in the armpits

Tenderness in the armpits can be a sign of breast cancer. Breast cancer in early stages metastasizes to the axillary lymph nodes that are present in the armpits. Swollen lymph nodes could definitely indicate the presence of a tumor in the breast. Therefore, if you find any discomfort, pain or tenderness in the armpits, you can doubt it as an uncommon sign of breast cancer and visit the healthcare provider for the further diagnosis.

By the presented information, you will now be able to point out the uncommon signs of breast cancer. Many of these signs are left unnoticed or overlooked and neglected, assuming them to be normal. However, realizing that those can be the signs of breast cancer can help you visit the experts at Apollo Cradle in a right time, which helps in right diagnosis and right treatment. We at Apollo Cradle, helps you seek the best care at best time to save morbidity and gift you the quality days in your lives.

Never neglect the abnormalities in the breast skin, texture, shape. Be alert, protect your breasts!!!! You deserve them….

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Breast Cancer Symptoms & Treatment

Breast Cancer Symptoms & Treatment

April 26, 2024

Breast cancer- Be watchful The most com...

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            [blog_title] => Low Grade Endometrial Carcinoma – A Case Study by Dr Seema Sharma
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Low Grade Endometrial Carcinoma
Laparoscopic radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy

A case study by
Dr Seema Sharma
MBBS, MD

Endometrial cancer is a cancer that arises from endometrium and is a result of abnormal growth of cells that have ability to invade or spread to other parts/organs of the body.

The most common symptom is post-menopausal bleeding per vaginum.

High risk factors, associated with almost 40% cases, are obesity, excessive estrogen exposure, high B.P and diabetes.

Diagnosis is by physical exam, TVS scan.

Hysteroscopy with endometrial biopsy is confirmatory, while other imaging modalities like CT scan, MRI and PET scan are used to determine the pelvic and extra pelvic spread.

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Low Grade Endometrial Carcinoma
Laparoscopic radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy

A case study by
Dr Seema Sharma
MBBS, MD

Endometrial cancer is a cancer that arises from endometrium and is a result of abnormal growth of cells that have ability to invade or spread to other parts/organs of the body.

The most common symptom is post-menopausal bleeding per vaginum.

High risk factors, associated with almost 40% cases, are obesity, excessive estrogen exposure, high B.P and diabetes.

Diagnosis is by physical exam, TVS scan.

Hysteroscopy with endometrial biopsy is confirmatory, while other imaging modalities like CT scan, MRI and PET scan are used to determine the pelvic and extra pelvic spread.

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Low Grade Endometrial Carcinoma – A Case Study by Dr Seema Sharma

Low Grade Endometrial Carcinoma – A Case Study by Dr Seema Sharma

April 25, 2024

Low Grade Endometrial Carcinoma...

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            [blog_title] => Common Symptoms That Indicate Gynecological Disorders
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Gynaecological disorders are essentially disorders of the female reproductive system. Symptoms may be varied and may be mild or severe. They may be an indication of a minor disorder or symptoms of something more serious. It is important not to ignore any symptom that lasts for a while or recurs repeatedly even if it is not associated with any pain.

Vaginal discharge

Some vaginal discharge is normal and occurs because of the bodily changes brought on by the monthly cycle of hormone level fluctuations. However, it may sometimes be excessive or characterized by an unpleasant odour. Vaginal discharge that is not normal may be a sign of infection and can be easily treated.

Sores

Sores or la growth on the genitals may be indicative of problems like skin cancer or infections. They may be red in color, itchy and may bleed especially if they are scratched. Sores can develop due to a number of reasons like a sexually transmitted infection or due to other chronic skin problems like dermatitis or exposure to any irritant.

Discomfort while urinating

Burning sensation or discomfort while urinating may be another symptom that one needs to be aware of. It may indicate an infection such as a sexually transmitted disease (STD) like gonorrhea or syphilis or a bacterial infection of the urinary tract.

Loss of control of the urinary bladder

There may be instances of loss of control of the urinary bladder which is commonly referred to as incontinence, in which a person is unable to control urination. Leakage of urine may occur when one coughs or laughs or lifts something heavy. This is called ‘stress incontinence’. It is an unintentional loss of urine.

Menstrual disorders:

Irregular menstruation, heavy menstruation, painful menses or post-menopausal bleeding are some of the menstrual disorders that should be checked by your gynaecologist.

Breast lump and breast screening:

It is important to know how your breasts look and feel so that any changes can be investigated. Clinical breast examination (CBE) by your gynaecologist will also make sure that any lump is detected in time.

Follow the recommended guidelines for mammography and get a regular mammography done. The guidelines differ slightly between whose recommendation it is. Take the advice of your doctor for this. The recommendation of the American Cancer Society (ACS) is that it should be done every year after the age of 45 years while the USPSTF (US Preventive Services Task Force) recommends once every 2 years starting at age 50.

Menopausal symptoms

These may be hot flushes, night sweats, palpitations, headaches, lack of interest in life and depression, difficulty in sleeping, weight gain, vaginal dryness etc.

When these are severe, it can affect the quality of life. Seek the help of your doctor to manage these symptoms.

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Gynaecological disorders are essentially disorders of the female reproductive system. Symptoms may be varied and may be mild or severe. They may be an indication of a minor disorder or symptoms of something more serious. It is important not to ignore any symptom that lasts for a while or recurs repeatedly even if it is not associated with any pain.

Vaginal discharge

Some vaginal discharge is normal and occurs because of the bodily changes brought on by the monthly cycle of hormone level fluctuations. However, it may sometimes be excessive or characterized by an unpleasant odour. Vaginal discharge that is not normal may be a sign of infection and can be easily treated.

Sores

Sores or la growth on the genitals may be indicative of problems like skin cancer or infections. They may be red in color, itchy and may bleed especially if they are scratched. Sores can develop due to a number of reasons like a sexually transmitted infection or due to other chronic skin problems like dermatitis or exposure to any irritant.

Discomfort while urinating

Burning sensation or discomfort while urinating may be another symptom that one needs to be aware of. It may indicate an infection such as a sexually transmitted disease (STD) like gonorrhea or syphilis or a bacterial infection of the urinary tract.

Loss of control of the urinary bladder

There may be instances of loss of control of the urinary bladder which is commonly referred to as incontinence, in which a person is unable to control urination. Leakage of urine may occur when one coughs or laughs or lifts something heavy. This is called ‘stress incontinence’. It is an unintentional loss of urine.

Menstrual disorders:

Irregular menstruation, heavy menstruation, painful menses or post-menopausal bleeding are some of the menstrual disorders that should be checked by your gynaecologist.

Breast lump and breast screening:

It is important to know how your breasts look and feel so that any changes can be investigated. Clinical breast examination (CBE) by your gynaecologist will also make sure that any lump is detected in time.

Follow the recommended guidelines for mammography and get a regular mammography done. The guidelines differ slightly between whose recommendation it is. Take the advice of your doctor for this. The recommendation of the American Cancer Society (ACS) is that it should be done every year after the age of 45 years while the USPSTF (US Preventive Services Task Force) recommends once every 2 years starting at age 50.

Menopausal symptoms

These may be hot flushes, night sweats, palpitations, headaches, lack of interest in life and depression, difficulty in sleeping, weight gain, vaginal dryness etc.

When these are severe, it can affect the quality of life. Seek the help of your doctor to manage these symptoms.

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Common Symptoms That Indicate Gynecological Disorders

Common Symptoms That Indicate Gynecological Disorders

April 22, 2024

Gynaecological disorders are essentially disorders of the female r...

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            [blog_title] => Everything You Need to Know About Induced and Re-Lactation
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Who does not love babies? The answer is no one. Each and every one of us loves to hold these beautiful bundles of joy with chubby cheeks, round eyes, that beautifully soft skin. The list can go on and on, with us wondering how? The answer is simple breastfeeding.

Breastfeeding is a most natural and intimate phenomenon that allows a bond between the mother and the child. The baby naturally knows how to suckle and the mother’s body is prepared to adjust to it. It is an important step towards the growth and development of the baby as the milk contains all the necessary nutrients required.

However, this natural phenomenon can be hindered due to health reasons.  One also cannot ignore those numerous mothers who opt for surrogate babies or foster moms.  After all, as many had said, “breastfeeding isn’t just about the milk, it is about Love”.

A very different aspect of breastfeeding introduced is Induced breastfeeding and re-lactation.

Induced Breastfeeding

Induced breastfeeding is requested when a woman is ready to be a surrogate mother for a baby irrespective of any gynecological history. It is also requested when a woman adopts a baby.

It is possible because, during pregnancy, certain hormones, namely estrogen, progesterone and prolactin are released that combine to produce milk. With the aid of supplement, these hormones can be mimicked to make to mother lactate. But one must remember, it is a complex, and a time taking process that needs expert advice.

The main reason one request to induce breastfeeding includes 

  • Health condition
  • To provide essential nutrients
  • To create a bond with the baby
Re-Lactation

Re-lactation is another aspect of breastfeeding that includes breastfeeding after a gap. The reason can be numerous ranging from illness to breast pains. However, you can continue with the process after some time. When one says that it can be stopped then remember artificial interference might stop it but temporarily. No one can stop this natural phenomenon.

You need to keep two things in mind before starting re-lactation. One that you need to get your breast to produce the milk and second that you need to get your baby to your breast. The latter is an easier task but the prior need expert advice and support.

Both the aspects need dedication, patience, and courage along with consultations and advice. But in the end, the result is worth everything.

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Who does not love babies? The answer is no one. Each and every one of us loves to hold these beautiful bundles of joy with chubby cheeks, round eyes, that beautifully soft skin. The list can go on and on, with us wondering how? The answer is simple breastfeeding.

Breastfeeding is a most natural and intimate phenomenon that allows a bond between the mother and the child. The baby naturally knows how to suckle and the mother’s body is prepared to adjust to it. It is an important step towards the growth and development of the baby as the milk contains all the necessary nutrients required.

However, this natural phenomenon can be hindered due to health reasons.  One also cannot ignore those numerous mothers who opt for surrogate babies or foster moms.  After all, as many had said, “breastfeeding isn’t just about the milk, it is about Love”.

A very different aspect of breastfeeding introduced is Induced breastfeeding and re-lactation.

Induced Breastfeeding

Induced breastfeeding is requested when a woman is ready to be a surrogate mother for a baby irrespective of any gynecological history. It is also requested when a woman adopts a baby.

It is possible because, during pregnancy, certain hormones, namely estrogen, progesterone and prolactin are released that combine to produce milk. With the aid of supplement, these hormones can be mimicked to make to mother lactate. But one must remember, it is a complex, and a time taking process that needs expert advice.

The main reason one request to induce breastfeeding includes 

  • Health condition
  • To provide essential nutrients
  • To create a bond with the baby
Re-Lactation

Re-lactation is another aspect of breastfeeding that includes breastfeeding after a gap. The reason can be numerous ranging from illness to breast pains. However, you can continue with the process after some time. When one says that it can be stopped then remember artificial interference might stop it but temporarily. No one can stop this natural phenomenon.

You need to keep two things in mind before starting re-lactation. One that you need to get your breast to produce the milk and second that you need to get your baby to your breast. The latter is an easier task but the prior need expert advice and support.

Both the aspects need dedication, patience, and courage along with consultations and advice. But in the end, the result is worth everything.

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Everything You Need to Know About Induced and Re-Lactation

Everything You Need to Know About Induced and Re-Lactation

April 19, 2024

Who does not love babies? The answer is no one. Each and eve...

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            [blog_title] => Cosmetic Gynecology
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Cosmetic Gynecology, or Female Cosmetic Genital Surgery (fcgs), is the fastest growing subspecialty for women. It includes procedures to enhance the aesthetic appearance of the vulva/vaginal region; and vaginal repairs to enhance or restore sexual function that are degraded due to childbirth or aging. It is practiced by gynecologist, especially urogynecologist, and plastic surgeons.

Cosmetic gynecology is not a medical requirement. It is a trend, driven by women themselves, and not by their sexual partners. Research has shown that the appearance of a woman’s genitalia affects her self-confidence and sexuality.

The five main procedures of Cosmetic Gynecology are:

  • Hymenoplasty: creating an intact hymen broken by cycling, horse riding or first intercourse. In most countries intact hymen denotes virginity
  • Vaginoplasty: tightening of vagina or vaginal rejuvenation, for sexual satisfaction.
  • Labiaplasty: improve the appearance of inner labia, and reduce the vaginal lip size.
  • Hoodectomy or Clitoral unhooding: remove the tissue that normally covers the clitoris.
  • Monsplasty: lift, tighten and shape-up the pubis, the “bikini bridge,” which may be prominent when wearing outfits.

These are minor-surgical, day, procedures. The scar usually is imperceptible; but some amount of bruising, discomfort and swelling is common.

Laser have recently been introduced for vaginal rejuvenation. Lasers have been in wide use for treatments in dermatology and aesthetic medicine. Laser’s introduction to cosmetic gynecology was therefore a natural progression of technology.  At present lasers in gynecology are being used for Condyloma, Cervical Dysplasia, Vaginal Tightening, Labial Trimming, Vulvar Melanosis, Liposuction of the Pubis Mound and Vulvar Hair Removal. But the safety and effectiveness of energy-based devices (Laser) for treatment of these conditions has not yet been established.

There is a lack of consensus on technique and outcomes for cosmetic gynec procedures; and potential for damage due to scarring, altered sensation, or wound complications.  Coupled with unethical or false claims. Women should be informed about the lack of data supporting the efficacy of these procedures and their potential complications, including infection, altered sensation, dyspareunia, adhesions, and scarring.

Therefore, women opting for cosmetic gynec procedures, beware! Make sure that the gynaecologist you go to is an experienced surgeon.

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Cosmetic Gynecology, or Female Cosmetic Genital Surgery (fcgs), is the fastest growing subspecialty for women. It includes procedures to enhance the aesthetic appearance of the vulva/vaginal region; and vaginal repairs to enhance or restore sexual function that are degraded due to childbirth or aging. It is practiced by gynecologist, especially urogynecologist, and plastic surgeons.

Cosmetic gynecology is not a medical requirement. It is a trend, driven by women themselves, and not by their sexual partners. Research has shown that the appearance of a woman’s genitalia affects her self-confidence and sexuality.

The five main procedures of Cosmetic Gynecology are:

  • Hymenoplasty: creating an intact hymen broken by cycling, horse riding or first intercourse. In most countries intact hymen denotes virginity
  • Vaginoplasty: tightening of vagina or vaginal rejuvenation, for sexual satisfaction.
  • Labiaplasty: improve the appearance of inner labia, and reduce the vaginal lip size.
  • Hoodectomy or Clitoral unhooding: remove the tissue that normally covers the clitoris.
  • Monsplasty: lift, tighten and shape-up the pubis, the “bikini bridge,” which may be prominent when wearing outfits.

These are minor-surgical, day, procedures. The scar usually is imperceptible; but some amount of bruising, discomfort and swelling is common.

Laser have recently been introduced for vaginal rejuvenation. Lasers have been in wide use for treatments in dermatology and aesthetic medicine. Laser’s introduction to cosmetic gynecology was therefore a natural progression of technology.  At present lasers in gynecology are being used for Condyloma, Cervical Dysplasia, Vaginal Tightening, Labial Trimming, Vulvar Melanosis, Liposuction of the Pubis Mound and Vulvar Hair Removal. But the safety and effectiveness of energy-based devices (Laser) for treatment of these conditions has not yet been established.

There is a lack of consensus on technique and outcomes for cosmetic gynec procedures; and potential for damage due to scarring, altered sensation, or wound complications.  Coupled with unethical or false claims. Women should be informed about the lack of data supporting the efficacy of these procedures and their potential complications, including infection, altered sensation, dyspareunia, adhesions, and scarring.

Therefore, women opting for cosmetic gynec procedures, beware! Make sure that the gynaecologist you go to is an experienced surgeon.

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Cosmetic Gynecology

Cosmetic Gynecology

April 18, 2024

Cosmetic Gynecology, or Female Cosmet...

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            [blog_title] => Annual Gynaecology Screening And Its Importance
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Who is a gynaecologist?

A gynaecologist is a doctor who treats women and specializes in female reproductive organs. An obstetrician is a kind of gynaecologist who specializes in pregnancy and childbirth. Their main duty is to make sure that their patients are healthy before, during and post pregnancy. Therefore, annual gynaecology screening helps.

What are annual gynaecology screenings?

An annual gynaecology screening is an overall health care examination of a woman’s reproductive organs. It is an annual exam, which means that you need to visit your gynaecologist at least once a year in order to get a general idea of your reproductive health and well-being. This screening consists of a general physical examination along with a pelvic exam, breast exam and pap smear test. The gynaecologist may also examine you to learn about your vitals, age, weight and height.

What kind of questions should you prepare for before you visit a gynaecologist?

A gynaecologist needs to get a general idea about your lifestyle and what your body is used to in order to provide you with the best treatment. Some of the questions that the doctor may ask you are:

  • Can I see your medical and gynaecology history records? If it is your first time visiting a gynaecologist, let them know.
  • How is your immunity? Do you fall sick often?
  • Are you sexually active?
  • What does your diet consist of?
  • Inquiries regarding your work and family life.
How to prepare for a gynaecological exam

The first thing you need to understand is that the gynaecologist you are visiting is a professional and you must trust him/her. You will always have an option to choose between a female or male doctor according to your preference. The doctor is not judgemental under any circumstance and you can talk freely to them. Always remember that they have treated many patients suffering from the same problem as you in the past. Drink a lot of water before you go if you have to give a urine sample or if the doctor has asked you to get an ultrasound. Before going for your gynaecological exam, note down all your concerns regarding your sex life, birth control, STDs, etc.

Is it necessary to take an annual gynaecology screening?

Yes, it is necessary and very important. All women are recommended to get tested every year whether they are sexually active or not because the examination will help detect any form of abnormalities in your body that can be treated at once, thereby preventing them from becoming severe cases and resulting in further complications. Usually in a pap smear, the doctor will examine the cervix cells and check whether they are malignant or not. This means they look for cervix cancer or any pre-cancerous symptoms. Other than that, they also check if all your reproductive organs are developing in a healthy and proper manner. They also examine your vaginal discharge. Hence, it is important to go to a doctor even if you are of sound sexual and reproductive health.

At what age should you start visiting the gynaecologist?

If you are 21 years of age and still haven’t visited the gynaecologist, it’s time you started. Women of 21 years of age and above should get their gynaecology exams done every year and should continue doing so till at least the age of 65.

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Who is a gynaecologist?

A gynaecologist is a doctor who treats women and specializes in female reproductive organs. An obstetrician is a kind of gynaecologist who specializes in pregnancy and childbirth. Their main duty is to make sure that their patients are healthy before, during and post pregnancy. Therefore, annual gynaecology screening helps.

What are annual gynaecology screenings?

An annual gynaecology screening is an overall health care examination of a woman’s reproductive organs. It is an annual exam, which means that you need to visit your gynaecologist at least once a year in order to get a general idea of your reproductive health and well-being. This screening consists of a general physical examination along with a pelvic exam, breast exam and pap smear test. The gynaecologist may also examine you to learn about your vitals, age, weight and height.

What kind of questions should you prepare for before you visit a gynaecologist?

A gynaecologist needs to get a general idea about your lifestyle and what your body is used to in order to provide you with the best treatment. Some of the questions that the doctor may ask you are:

  • Can I see your medical and gynaecology history records? If it is your first time visiting a gynaecologist, let them know.
  • How is your immunity? Do you fall sick often?
  • Are you sexually active?
  • What does your diet consist of?
  • Inquiries regarding your work and family life.
How to prepare for a gynaecological exam

The first thing you need to understand is that the gynaecologist you are visiting is a professional and you must trust him/her. You will always have an option to choose between a female or male doctor according to your preference. The doctor is not judgemental under any circumstance and you can talk freely to them. Always remember that they have treated many patients suffering from the same problem as you in the past. Drink a lot of water before you go if you have to give a urine sample or if the doctor has asked you to get an ultrasound. Before going for your gynaecological exam, note down all your concerns regarding your sex life, birth control, STDs, etc.

Is it necessary to take an annual gynaecology screening?

Yes, it is necessary and very important. All women are recommended to get tested every year whether they are sexually active or not because the examination will help detect any form of abnormalities in your body that can be treated at once, thereby preventing them from becoming severe cases and resulting in further complications. Usually in a pap smear, the doctor will examine the cervix cells and check whether they are malignant or not. This means they look for cervix cancer or any pre-cancerous symptoms. Other than that, they also check if all your reproductive organs are developing in a healthy and proper manner. They also examine your vaginal discharge. Hence, it is important to go to a doctor even if you are of sound sexual and reproductive health.

At what age should you start visiting the gynaecologist?

If you are 21 years of age and still haven’t visited the gynaecologist, it’s time you started. Women of 21 years of age and above should get their gynaecology exams done every year and should continue doing so till at least the age of 65.

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Annual Gynaecology Screening And Its Importance

Annual Gynaecology Screening And Its Importance

April 11, 2024

Who is a gynaecologist? A gynaecologist is a doctor who ...

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            [blog_title] => Diet Of Kids With Cystic Fibrosis
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What is cystic fibrosis?

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a disease which affects epithelial cells which are found in the lungs and the digestive system. If a problem occurs in these cells, the balance of salt and water in the body gets disturbed. This leads to the formation of abnormally thick mucus, and this mucus can clog up the lungs which cause breathing problem in kids with CF. Similar mucus can impact the digestive system and block the body from getting the essential nutrients like fats and vitamins from food. If the kids with CF eat well and take medicines, they can remain healthy.  Kids with CF should eat more compared to most other kids. Hence, the kids with CF and their parents work with a dietician to plan their diet.

Why kids with cystic fibrosis need extra care?
  • Kids with CF should eat minimum three meals a day along with snacks in between to get enough calories they need.
  • Kids with CF require more calories to grow, gaining weight and energy for playing as they face difficulties in absorbing fat and nutrients in food.
  • Sometimes kids with CF cannot absorb important nutrients from food and the food directly goes to the person’s bowel movements and thus may require supplementation.

Kids with CF should have the following ingredients in their daily diet:

  • Iron: Iron is an important element which carries oxygen to all the body’s cells. Iron is available in cereals, meats, dried fruits and dark green vegetables.
  • Zinc: It is crucial for growth, healing and staying healthy. Zinc is available in meats, liver, eggs and seafood.
  • Calcium: It is beneficial for building strong bones. Calcium is available in milk, yogurt, cheese and calcium-fortified juices.
  • Salt: Kids with CF lose salt through sweat during hot climate or physical activity. Hence it is important to substitute the salt by adding it into the food and eating salty snack items.
Diet tips for kids with cystic fibrosis:
  • Make them drink whole milk and milkshakes
  • Add some extra butter or ghee to their foods
  • Make their pizza with some extra cheese
  • Add extra cheese to their sandwiches and rotis
  • Keep lot of salads and sandwiches in their diet
  • Keep ice cream, pudding and cheesecake in dessert for them
  • Try to top their desserts with whipped cream

Energy bars, dry fruits, packets of cheese or cream biscuits should be kept for their snacks

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What is cystic fibrosis?

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a disease which affects epithelial cells which are found in the lungs and the digestive system. If a problem occurs in these cells, the balance of salt and water in the body gets disturbed. This leads to the formation of abnormally thick mucus, and this mucus can clog up the lungs which cause breathing problem in kids with CF. Similar mucus can impact the digestive system and block the body from getting the essential nutrients like fats and vitamins from food. If the kids with CF eat well and take medicines, they can remain healthy.  Kids with CF should eat more compared to most other kids. Hence, the kids with CF and their parents work with a dietician to plan their diet.

Why kids with cystic fibrosis need extra care?
  • Kids with CF should eat minimum three meals a day along with snacks in between to get enough calories they need.
  • Kids with CF require more calories to grow, gaining weight and energy for playing as they face difficulties in absorbing fat and nutrients in food.
  • Sometimes kids with CF cannot absorb important nutrients from food and the food directly goes to the person’s bowel movements and thus may require supplementation.

Kids with CF should have the following ingredients in their daily diet:

  • Iron: Iron is an important element which carries oxygen to all the body’s cells. Iron is available in cereals, meats, dried fruits and dark green vegetables.
  • Zinc: It is crucial for growth, healing and staying healthy. Zinc is available in meats, liver, eggs and seafood.
  • Calcium: It is beneficial for building strong bones. Calcium is available in milk, yogurt, cheese and calcium-fortified juices.
  • Salt: Kids with CF lose salt through sweat during hot climate or physical activity. Hence it is important to substitute the salt by adding it into the food and eating salty snack items.
Diet tips for kids with cystic fibrosis:
  • Make them drink whole milk and milkshakes
  • Add some extra butter or ghee to their foods
  • Make their pizza with some extra cheese
  • Add extra cheese to their sandwiches and rotis
  • Keep lot of salads and sandwiches in their diet
  • Keep ice cream, pudding and cheesecake in dessert for them
  • Try to top their desserts with whipped cream

Energy bars, dry fruits, packets of cheese or cream biscuits should be kept for their snacks

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Diet Of Kids With Cystic Fibrosis

Diet Of Kids With Cystic Fibrosis

April 9, 2024

What is cystic fibrosis? Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a disea...

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            [blog_title] => Top Common Symptoms Of STDs
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STDs are diseases that are passed from one person to another through sexual contact. These include chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital herpes, human papillomavirus (HPV), syphilis, and HIV. Many of these STDs do not show symptoms for a long time, but they can still be harmful and passed on during sex.

You can get an STD by having sex (vaginal, anal or oral) with someone who has an STD. Some STDs, like herpes and HPV, are spread by skin-to-skin contact.

Sometimes these infections can be transmitted nonsexually, such as from mother to infant during pregnancy or childbirth, or through blood transfusions or shared needles.

So how do you know if you’ve been infected by an STD? Following are the common symptoms of STD.

There may be a range of symptoms from none at all to the following.  Signs and symptoms may appear a few days after exposure, or it may take years before any symptoms show up.

You may have

  • Discharge from the penis
  • Unusual or odd-smelling vaginal discharge
  • Unusual vaginal bleeding
  • Fever
  • Lower abdominal pain
  • Painful or burning urination
  • Sores or lumps on the genitals or in the oral or rectal area
  • Sore, swollen lymph nodes, particularly in the groin but sometimes more widespread
Risk Factors:

Anyone who is sexually active risks exposure to a sexually transmitted infection to some degree. Factors that may increase that risk include:

Having unprotected sex. Vaginal or anal penetration by an infected partner without a condom increases the risk of getting an STI.

Having sexual contact with multiple partners. The more people you have sexual contact with, the greater your risk.

Abusing alcohol or using recreational drugs. Substance abuse can cause you to lose your judgment, making you participate in risky behaviors.

Injecting drugs. Needle sharing spreads many serious infections, including HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C.

To make sure that you don’t expose yourself to STDs, practice safe sex and get yourself checked by an expert medical professional from time to time. STDs are easier to cure in the early stages, so it is important to get a screening done periodically. STDs if left untreated can increase your chances of acquiring other STDs like HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and may cause complications like infertility.

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STDs are diseases that are passed from one person to another through sexual contact. These include chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital herpes, human papillomavirus (HPV), syphilis, and HIV. Many of these STDs do not show symptoms for a long time, but they can still be harmful and passed on during sex.

You can get an STD by having sex (vaginal, anal or oral) with someone who has an STD. Some STDs, like herpes and HPV, are spread by skin-to-skin contact.

Sometimes these infections can be transmitted nonsexually, such as from mother to infant during pregnancy or childbirth, or through blood transfusions or shared needles.

So how do you know if you’ve been infected by an STD? Following are the common symptoms of STD.

There may be a range of symptoms from none at all to the following.  Signs and symptoms may appear a few days after exposure, or it may take years before any symptoms show up.

You may have

  • Discharge from the penis
  • Unusual or odd-smelling vaginal discharge
  • Unusual vaginal bleeding
  • Fever
  • Lower abdominal pain
  • Painful or burning urination
  • Sores or lumps on the genitals or in the oral or rectal area
  • Sore, swollen lymph nodes, particularly in the groin but sometimes more widespread
Risk Factors:

Anyone who is sexually active risks exposure to a sexually transmitted infection to some degree. Factors that may increase that risk include:

Having unprotected sex. Vaginal or anal penetration by an infected partner without a condom increases the risk of getting an STI.

Having sexual contact with multiple partners. The more people you have sexual contact with, the greater your risk.

Abusing alcohol or using recreational drugs. Substance abuse can cause you to lose your judgment, making you participate in risky behaviors.

Injecting drugs. Needle sharing spreads many serious infections, including HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C.

To make sure that you don’t expose yourself to STDs, practice safe sex and get yourself checked by an expert medical professional from time to time. STDs are easier to cure in the early stages, so it is important to get a screening done periodically. STDs if left untreated can increase your chances of acquiring other STDs like HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and may cause complications like infertility.

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Top Common Symptoms Of STDs

Top Common Symptoms Of STDs

April 4, 2024

STDs are diseases that are passed from one person to another throu...

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            [blog_title] => Intrauterine Contraceptive Device (IUD)
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Today, most couples, to effectively plan their families, are adopting different methods to prevent pregnancy. An effective device that helps with this is a form of birth control called intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) or an intrauterine device (IUD). This method of contraception acts by preventing the sperm and egg from surviving in the uterus or fallopian tubes or even by preventing a fertilised egg from implanting in the uterus.

What is an Intrauterine Contraceptive Device?

Also known as an Intra Uterine Device (IUD), this is a small T-shaped plastic and copper device that is inserted into the uterus and can be left inside for five to ten years depending upon the type. There are different IUDs available, some with more copper than others. Some variations of this device also release hormones that prevent women from ovulating.

A thread is attached at the end of the device, which hangs down through the cervix and into the vagina. It is essential to note, though, that the device should only be inserted and removed by a trained medical practitioner.

How Does the Intrauterine Contraceptive Device work?

Patients often confuse this device with the Intrauterine System (IUS). Instead of releasing the hormone progestogen like the IUS, the IUD releases copper. Copper acts to change the composition of the fluids in the uterus and fallopian tubes so that sperm cannot survive there. IUDs may also stop the fertilised eggs from implanting in the uterus.

IUDs with more copper are more effective than those with less copper. The Intrauterine Device can be put in at any time during the menstrual cycle, as long as the woman is not pregnant. After an Intrauterine Device (IUD) is inserted, the periods may become heavier or longer. This effect may last up to six months, but will settle down. At Apollo Cradle, Intrauterine Device insertion is a procedure that is routinely performed by our experienced Consultants.

Benefits of the Intrauterine Contraceptive Device Insertion

An Intrauterine Contraceptive Device offers some benefits to the woman. Some of them include:

  • It is an effective contraceptive method with a failure rate of one percent.
  • It is an excellent option for women who are looking for a lasting contraceptive method that is reversible.
  • Once the IUD is removed, your fertility gets back to normal immediately
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Today, most couples, to effectively plan their families, are adopting different methods to prevent pregnancy. An effective device that helps with this is a form of birth control called intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) or an intrauterine device (IUD). This method of contraception acts by preventing the sperm and egg from surviving in the uterus or fallopian tubes or even by preventing a fertilised egg from implanting in the uterus.

What is an Intrauterine Contraceptive Device?

Also known as an Intra Uterine Device (IUD), this is a small T-shaped plastic and copper device that is inserted into the uterus and can be left inside for five to ten years depending upon the type. There are different IUDs available, some with more copper than others. Some variations of this device also release hormones that prevent women from ovulating.

A thread is attached at the end of the device, which hangs down through the cervix and into the vagina. It is essential to note, though, that the device should only be inserted and removed by a trained medical practitioner.

How Does the Intrauterine Contraceptive Device work?

Patients often confuse this device with the Intrauterine System (IUS). Instead of releasing the hormone progestogen like the IUS, the IUD releases copper. Copper acts to change the composition of the fluids in the uterus and fallopian tubes so that sperm cannot survive there. IUDs may also stop the fertilised eggs from implanting in the uterus.

IUDs with more copper are more effective than those with less copper. The Intrauterine Device can be put in at any time during the menstrual cycle, as long as the woman is not pregnant. After an Intrauterine Device (IUD) is inserted, the periods may become heavier or longer. This effect may last up to six months, but will settle down. At Apollo Cradle, Intrauterine Device insertion is a procedure that is routinely performed by our experienced Consultants.

Benefits of the Intrauterine Contraceptive Device Insertion

An Intrauterine Contraceptive Device offers some benefits to the woman. Some of them include:

  • It is an effective contraceptive method with a failure rate of one percent.
  • It is an excellent option for women who are looking for a lasting contraceptive method that is reversible.
  • Once the IUD is removed, your fertility gets back to normal immediately
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Intrauterine Contraceptive Device (IUD)

Intrauterine Contraceptive Device (IUD)

April 3, 2024

Today, most couples, to effectively ...

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            [blog_title] => Pelvic Inflammatory Disease & Treatment
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What is Pelvic Inflammatory Disease?

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of the female reproductive organs, usually caused by a sexually transmitted infection (STI). If left untreated it can cause infertility. PID can also result in the case of an infection that spreads from the vagina and cervix (neck of the womb) to the womb (uterus), ovaries and fallopian tubes (the tubes that go from the ovaries to the womb). PID can become a long-term health problem and can regularly flare up and affect the quality of your life.

At Apollo Cradle, our healthcare professionals are experienced in diagnosing and providing the treatment for pelvic inflammatory disease. While there is no single test to diagnose PID, our doctors will diagnose you on the basis of your symptoms and a gynaecological examination. Schedule an appointment with our healthcare givers to ensure that you get a prompt diagnosis and treatment if needed.

Symptoms of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Symptoms associated with Pelvic Inflammatory Disease tend to vary. However, some of the common symptoms include:

  • Irregular periods
  • Pain in the lower abdomen
  • Painful sex
  • Pain during urination
  • Chills or high fever
  • Vomiting
  • Nausea
  • Vaginal discharge accompanied with foul smell
  • Back pain
  • Fatigue
  • Diarrhea
Impact of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

PID is also one of the primary preventable causes of infertility. If you do not receive treatment for your pelvic infection in time, you may have flare-ups of the disease, or you could have an ectopic pregnancy (when the pregnancy occurs outside the uterus such as in the fallopian tubes). If a pregnancy occurs, it may be associated with complications such as a preterm pregnancy or passing on the infection to your newborn.

Who is at Risk of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease?

Some factors put a woman at risk for Pelvic Inflammatory Disease. Patients who are most at risk for this condition include:

  • Women who have had Pelvic Inflammatory Disease earlier
  • Women with Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)
  • Women with many sexual partners are prone to STD and ultimately PID
  • Teenagers who are sexually active
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Treatment

Mild cases of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease can be treated by antibiotic medication is taken orally. Severe cases, though, may require a combination of oral and intravenous antibiotics.

In case you have symptoms of nausea, high fever or vomiting, or you have symptoms that mimic an ectopic pregnancy, you might need to be hospitalised for a detailed examination. A pelvic exam will be performed that will confirm the tenderness in the pelvis. The exam will also help in identifying the location of the infection. Suitable treatment of PID will be started after swabs of your vagina and cervix are sent for examination.

It is essential to take the full course of antibiotics to cure the infection completely.

You may be advised a surgical procedure such as laparoscopy to confirm the diagnosis and also to deal with any adhesions that may have resulted from the infection and contribute to infertility.

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What is Pelvic Inflammatory Disease?

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of the female reproductive organs, usually caused by a sexually transmitted infection (STI). If left untreated it can cause infertility. PID can also result in the case of an infection that spreads from the vagina and cervix (neck of the womb) to the womb (uterus), ovaries and fallopian tubes (the tubes that go from the ovaries to the womb). PID can become a long-term health problem and can regularly flare up and affect the quality of your life.

At Apollo Cradle, our healthcare professionals are experienced in diagnosing and providing the treatment for pelvic inflammatory disease. While there is no single test to diagnose PID, our doctors will diagnose you on the basis of your symptoms and a gynaecological examination. Schedule an appointment with our healthcare givers to ensure that you get a prompt diagnosis and treatment if needed.

Symptoms of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Symptoms associated with Pelvic Inflammatory Disease tend to vary. However, some of the common symptoms include:

  • Irregular periods
  • Pain in the lower abdomen
  • Painful sex
  • Pain during urination
  • Chills or high fever
  • Vomiting
  • Nausea
  • Vaginal discharge accompanied with foul smell
  • Back pain
  • Fatigue
  • Diarrhea
Impact of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

PID is also one of the primary preventable causes of infertility. If you do not receive treatment for your pelvic infection in time, you may have flare-ups of the disease, or you could have an ectopic pregnancy (when the pregnancy occurs outside the uterus such as in the fallopian tubes). If a pregnancy occurs, it may be associated with complications such as a preterm pregnancy or passing on the infection to your newborn.

Who is at Risk of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease?

Some factors put a woman at risk for Pelvic Inflammatory Disease. Patients who are most at risk for this condition include:

  • Women who have had Pelvic Inflammatory Disease earlier
  • Women with Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)
  • Women with many sexual partners are prone to STD and ultimately PID
  • Teenagers who are sexually active
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Treatment

Mild cases of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease can be treated by antibiotic medication is taken orally. Severe cases, though, may require a combination of oral and intravenous antibiotics.

In case you have symptoms of nausea, high fever or vomiting, or you have symptoms that mimic an ectopic pregnancy, you might need to be hospitalised for a detailed examination. A pelvic exam will be performed that will confirm the tenderness in the pelvis. The exam will also help in identifying the location of the infection. Suitable treatment of PID will be started after swabs of your vagina and cervix are sent for examination.

It is essential to take the full course of antibiotics to cure the infection completely.

You may be advised a surgical procedure such as laparoscopy to confirm the diagnosis and also to deal with any adhesions that may have resulted from the infection and contribute to infertility.

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Pelvic Inflammatory Disease & Treatment

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease & Treatment

April 3, 2024

What is Pelvic Inflammatory Disease? ...

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            [blog_title] => What Are The Common Symptoms That Indicate Gynaecological Disorders During Intercourse?
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A gynaecological disorder may be defined as a medical condition, which affects the reproductive organs of women. The female reproductive organ includes the vagina, breasts, uterus, ovaries and fallopian tubes. Research has revealed that almost all women experience a related disorder sometime during their lives and seek gynaecological treatment. In most cases, these disorders are minor and are treated and cured easily. However, in few cases, the gynaecological disorder may be quite serious, causing severe complications, which can include jeopardising a possible pregnancy or resulting in infertility or even death.

Some common gynaecological disorders, which can lead to infertility are-
  1. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) – Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of the female reproductive organs, usually caused by a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Although PID can often be treated quickly and effectively, if left untreated it can cause infertility.
    PID can result if an infection spreads from your vagina and cervix (lower part of the uterus) to your uterus, ovaries and fallopian tubes. A chlamydia infection can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) – between one and three in every 10 women with untreated chlamydia will get PID. PID can become a long-term condition with regular flare-ups with fever and abdominal pain.
  2. Chlamydia– Another common sexually transmitted disease, which if untreated, leads to the onset of PID in 40% women and infertility in 20% women. It has been revealed that almost 75% of women do not experience any symptoms of this condition and therefore, do not seek gynaecological treatment.

However, the symptoms of gynaecological disorders vary according to the specific disorder you are suffering from. Hence, they cannot be generalised, and it is important for you to know about the particular disorder in itself, to understand and recognise its symptoms. Here are the disorders and their symptoms.

  1. Vaginitis and the pain and discomfort associated with it:

    Vaginitis is an inflammation of the vagina. The cause is usually a change in the normal balance of vaginal bacteria resulting in an infection. Menopause with its reduced estrogen levels can predispose to vaginitis. The causes of vaginitis are bacterial infection, yeast or fungal infection usually by a naturally occurring fungus called Candida albicans, parasitic infection -trichomoniasis, which is transmitted by sexual intercourse. The symptoms of this are pain and discomfort during sexual intercourse and itching and discomfort in the vaginal area.

  2. Vaginismus

    This condition is the recurrent involuntary tightening of muscles around the vagina whenever penetration is attempted. If there’s an obvious physical cause, such as an infection, it can be treated. If the cause is psychological, sex therapy may be recommended. This may include counselling or cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), as well as treatments such as vaginal trainers and relaxation techniques.

  3. Vaginal dryness and the associated pain, bleeding and irritation

    Severe pain, irritation and slight bleeding during sex may indicate vaginal dryness. This condition can affect you at any age and can occur during pregnancy. It is common if you’re menopausal but can also occur if you’re breastfeeding or are taking contraceptive pills.

  4. Stress incontinence and the associated involuntary urination

    Involuntary leakage of urine during sex indicates stress incontinence. This condition occurs in pregnant women and those who are either obese or have had pelvic surgery at some point in their lives. If it is associated with a physical cause it may be treated with surgery or physical therapy.

    Gynaecological disorders are quite common, and most of them are easily treatable. It is essential that you recognise the symptoms and seek medical advice as soon as possible.

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A gynaecological disorder may be defined as a medical condition, which affects the reproductive organs of women. The female reproductive organ includes the vagina, breasts, uterus, ovaries and fallopian tubes. Research has revealed that almost all women experience a related disorder sometime during their lives and seek gynaecological treatment. In most cases, these disorders are minor and are treated and cured easily. However, in few cases, the gynaecological disorder may be quite serious, causing severe complications, which can include jeopardising a possible pregnancy or resulting in infertility or even death.

Some common gynaecological disorders, which can lead to infertility are-
  1. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) – Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of the female reproductive organs, usually caused by a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Although PID can often be treated quickly and effectively, if left untreated it can cause infertility.
    PID can result if an infection spreads from your vagina and cervix (lower part of the uterus) to your uterus, ovaries and fallopian tubes. A chlamydia infection can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) – between one and three in every 10 women with untreated chlamydia will get PID. PID can become a long-term condition with regular flare-ups with fever and abdominal pain.
  2. Chlamydia– Another common sexually transmitted disease, which if untreated, leads to the onset of PID in 40% women and infertility in 20% women. It has been revealed that almost 75% of women do not experience any symptoms of this condition and therefore, do not seek gynaecological treatment.

However, the symptoms of gynaecological disorders vary according to the specific disorder you are suffering from. Hence, they cannot be generalised, and it is important for you to know about the particular disorder in itself, to understand and recognise its symptoms. Here are the disorders and their symptoms.

  1. Vaginitis and the pain and discomfort associated with it:

    Vaginitis is an inflammation of the vagina. The cause is usually a change in the normal balance of vaginal bacteria resulting in an infection. Menopause with its reduced estrogen levels can predispose to vaginitis. The causes of vaginitis are bacterial infection, yeast or fungal infection usually by a naturally occurring fungus called Candida albicans, parasitic infection -trichomoniasis, which is transmitted by sexual intercourse. The symptoms of this are pain and discomfort during sexual intercourse and itching and discomfort in the vaginal area.

  2. Vaginismus

    This condition is the recurrent involuntary tightening of muscles around the vagina whenever penetration is attempted. If there’s an obvious physical cause, such as an infection, it can be treated. If the cause is psychological, sex therapy may be recommended. This may include counselling or cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), as well as treatments such as vaginal trainers and relaxation techniques.

  3. Vaginal dryness and the associated pain, bleeding and irritation

    Severe pain, irritation and slight bleeding during sex may indicate vaginal dryness. This condition can affect you at any age and can occur during pregnancy. It is common if you’re menopausal but can also occur if you’re breastfeeding or are taking contraceptive pills.

  4. Stress incontinence and the associated involuntary urination

    Involuntary leakage of urine during sex indicates stress incontinence. This condition occurs in pregnant women and those who are either obese or have had pelvic surgery at some point in their lives. If it is associated with a physical cause it may be treated with surgery or physical therapy.

    Gynaecological disorders are quite common, and most of them are easily treatable. It is essential that you recognise the symptoms and seek medical advice as soon as possible.

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What Are The Common Symptoms That Indicate Gynaecological Disorders During Intercourse?

What Are The Common Symptoms That Indicate Gynaecological Disorders During Intercourse?

April 2, 2024

A gynaecological disorder may be defined as a medical condition, whi...

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            [blog_title] => Minimally Invasive Surgery (Benefits of Laparoscopic Surgery)
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According to Dr. Usha B.R, Consultant Obstetrics and Gynecology-Apollo Cradle Koramangala, Laparoscopy is a procedure where the abdominal cavity is visualised through small incisions (5mm) made over abdomen. Almost all the Gynaec surgeries can be done through these small incisions. Laparoscopy could be done for diagnostic purposes for unexplained Infertility, to check for tubal patency, for chronic pelvic pain, to take biopsies, to rule out mild endometriosis, and to look for other intra-abdominal pathologies. Many surgeries could be done laparoscopically like Hysterectomy (uterus removal), Myomectomy (fibroid removal), Ovarian Cystectomy (removal of cyst), Salpingectomy (fallopian tube removal). Some of these could be emergencies also like ruptured ectopic pregnancy where the pregnancy sac is in the tube and the tube gets ruptured and also Ovarian torsion where the ovary with or without tube torts on its own pedicle and loses blood supply resulting in severe pain abdomen. All these emergencies usually occur in young ladies who had to undergo open surgeries earlier but now can be managed laparoscopically.

Hysteroscopy is a procedure to visualise the interior of uterus or the endometrial cavity through a scope placed through the vagina and cervix. Diagnostic hysteroscopy is done to visualise the cavity prior to IVF, to take biopsy. Lot of procedures can be done under visualisation like polyp removal, fibroid removal, embedded Cu-T removal, septal resection.

Many surgeries are done using both the techniques of laparoscopy and hysteroscopy like tubal cannulation (removal of block in fallopian tubes) and septal resection.There are many advantages of these minimally invasive surgeries including reduced blood loss during surgery, reduced post-operative pain, reduced adhesions, reduced infections, faster recovery, cosmetically better as there are no big scars, reduced hospital stay. Many of these surgeries are done as day care where the patient is sent back home the same day. Most of the other bigger surgeries would mean a 2 day stay in the hospital. Robotic surgery is an advancement of the laparoscopic surgery, is costlier and is better utilised for complicated cases.

From the Surgeon’s point of view, it would mean a longer learning curve, longer duration of surgery in certain cases but better postoperative results. Like any other surgery, minimally invasive surgery also carries certain risks due to the procedure including risks to the adjacent organs and risks of anaesthesia etc. But all these can be minimised when the surgery is done in a good set up with a good experienced surgeon following all the patient safety norms.

FIBROID (Advantages of laparoscopic Myomectomy)

It is the most common benign or non-cancerous tumour of uterus. It is seen in upto 30-35% of women in the reproductive age group of 15 to 50 yrs. It is a smooth muscle tumour which is totally estrogen hormone dependent. So, it is seen only in the years where the lady has estrogen, i.e. between 15 to 50 yrs. It is a slowing growing tumors, usually not seen before puberty and usually shrinks after menopause. Its size could be as small as pea to as big as a football occupying the whole of abdomen.

These tumours can be silent to be incidentally picked up on ultrasound or could cause symptoms. Fibroids can trouble patients causing heavy menstrual flow, pain during menses, low back ache, heaviness or mass in the abdomen, sub fertility or Infertility, early pregnancy losses or premature delivery. When the fibroid is very big, it can press on the bladder in front causing stasis of urine, incomplete emptying of bladder, repeated urinary infections. It can also press on the bowel behind causing constipation, incomplete emptying etc.

Causes of fibroid can be early menarche, late menopause, obesity, late conception or could also be hereditary.

A good transvaginal ultrasound is the best modality to diagnose fibroids. 3D ultrasound could be used to accurately map the fibroids. Fibroids require treatment or intervention only if they are symptomatic or if they are large enough. If they are big, they may grow further and have the risk of conversion to cancer (sarcoma) and hence Surgery is indicated. The risk of conversion is 0.5 to 1%. Smaller fibroids causing problems could be managed medically. Uterine artery embolization is another non-invasive modality of treatment where the blood vessel feeding the uterus is specifically blocked and so the fibroids shrink. Surgery in the form of myomectomy (fibroid removal) can be done laparoscopically (keyhole surgery) or hysteroscopically depending on the location of fibroid. These minimally invasive surgeries would mean reduced blood loss during surgery, reduced postoperative pain, reduced adhesions, reduced infections, faster recovery, cosmetically better as there are no big scars, and reduced hospital stay.

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According to Dr. Usha B.R, Consultant Obstetrics and Gynecology-Apollo Cradle Koramangala, Laparoscopy is a procedure where the abdominal cavity is visualised through small incisions (5mm) made over abdomen. Almost all the Gynaec surgeries can be done through these small incisions. Laparoscopy could be done for diagnostic purposes for unexplained Infertility, to check for tubal patency, for chronic pelvic pain, to take biopsies, to rule out mild endometriosis, and to look for other intra-abdominal pathologies. Many surgeries could be done laparoscopically like Hysterectomy (uterus removal), Myomectomy (fibroid removal), Ovarian Cystectomy (removal of cyst), Salpingectomy (fallopian tube removal). Some of these could be emergencies also like ruptured ectopic pregnancy where the pregnancy sac is in the tube and the tube gets ruptured and also Ovarian torsion where the ovary with or without tube torts on its own pedicle and loses blood supply resulting in severe pain abdomen. All these emergencies usually occur in young ladies who had to undergo open surgeries earlier but now can be managed laparoscopically.

Hysteroscopy is a procedure to visualise the interior of uterus or the endometrial cavity through a scope placed through the vagina and cervix. Diagnostic hysteroscopy is done to visualise the cavity prior to IVF, to take biopsy. Lot of procedures can be done under visualisation like polyp removal, fibroid removal, embedded Cu-T removal, septal resection.

Many surgeries are done using both the techniques of laparoscopy and hysteroscopy like tubal cannulation (removal of block in fallopian tubes) and septal resection.There are many advantages of these minimally invasive surgeries including reduced blood loss during surgery, reduced post-operative pain, reduced adhesions, reduced infections, faster recovery, cosmetically better as there are no big scars, reduced hospital stay. Many of these surgeries are done as day care where the patient is sent back home the same day. Most of the other bigger surgeries would mean a 2 day stay in the hospital. Robotic surgery is an advancement of the laparoscopic surgery, is costlier and is better utilised for complicated cases.

From the Surgeon’s point of view, it would mean a longer learning curve, longer duration of surgery in certain cases but better postoperative results. Like any other surgery, minimally invasive surgery also carries certain risks due to the procedure including risks to the adjacent organs and risks of anaesthesia etc. But all these can be minimised when the surgery is done in a good set up with a good experienced surgeon following all the patient safety norms.

FIBROID (Advantages of laparoscopic Myomectomy)

It is the most common benign or non-cancerous tumour of uterus. It is seen in upto 30-35% of women in the reproductive age group of 15 to 50 yrs. It is a smooth muscle tumour which is totally estrogen hormone dependent. So, it is seen only in the years where the lady has estrogen, i.e. between 15 to 50 yrs. It is a slowing growing tumors, usually not seen before puberty and usually shrinks after menopause. Its size could be as small as pea to as big as a football occupying the whole of abdomen.

These tumours can be silent to be incidentally picked up on ultrasound or could cause symptoms. Fibroids can trouble patients causing heavy menstrual flow, pain during menses, low back ache, heaviness or mass in the abdomen, sub fertility or Infertility, early pregnancy losses or premature delivery. When the fibroid is very big, it can press on the bladder in front causing stasis of urine, incomplete emptying of bladder, repeated urinary infections. It can also press on the bowel behind causing constipation, incomplete emptying etc.

Causes of fibroid can be early menarche, late menopause, obesity, late conception or could also be hereditary.

A good transvaginal ultrasound is the best modality to diagnose fibroids. 3D ultrasound could be used to accurately map the fibroids. Fibroids require treatment or intervention only if they are symptomatic or if they are large enough. If they are big, they may grow further and have the risk of conversion to cancer (sarcoma) and hence Surgery is indicated. The risk of conversion is 0.5 to 1%. Smaller fibroids causing problems could be managed medically. Uterine artery embolization is another non-invasive modality of treatment where the blood vessel feeding the uterus is specifically blocked and so the fibroids shrink. Surgery in the form of myomectomy (fibroid removal) can be done laparoscopically (keyhole surgery) or hysteroscopically depending on the location of fibroid. These minimally invasive surgeries would mean reduced blood loss during surgery, reduced postoperative pain, reduced adhesions, reduced infections, faster recovery, cosmetically better as there are no big scars, and reduced hospital stay.

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What is Menopause?

The end of a woman’s menstrual cycle is called menopause. When a woman has gone 12 months without a menstrual period, menopause is diagnosed. Usually, menopause starts between the ages of 47 to 55 years, 51 being the average. In some women, it may start earlier due to underlying medical conditions or previous surgeries.

There are three stages of menopause –
  • Perimenopause – The transitional time before menopause is called perimenopause. This includes the 12 months after a woman’s last period.
  • Menopause When it has been 12 months since a woman’s last period or when menstruation stops due to a clinical reason such as removal of the ovaries, it is called menopause.
  • Postmenopause – The years after menopause is referred to as postmenopause. 
Causes

Menopause can occur due to various reasons, such as –

  • The natural decline in reproductive hormones – The ovaries start to produce less progesterone and estrogen, the hormones are responsible for regulating menstruation, as you approach your late 30s. Due to this, fertility declines. Eventually, the ovaries stop releasing eggs and periods stop.
  • Oophorectomy – Oophorectomy is the surgery to remove the ovaries. This leads to immediate menopause as your periods would stop once the ovaries are removed.
  • Primary ovarian insufficiency – Around 1% of all women experience premature menopause, which is menopause before the age of 40. Generally, there is no exact cause of premature menopause but it can be attributed to the ovaries not producing normal levels of reproductive hormones known as primary ovarian insufficiency. This might be due to autoimmune disease or genetic factors.
  • Chemotherapy and radiation – Radiation and chemotherapy are cancer treatments that can induce menopause. 
Symptoms

Early menopause symptoms include –

  • Vaginal dryness
  • Urinary urgency
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Hot flashes
  • Breast tenderness
  • Fatigue
  • Irregular periods 

Menopause symptoms include –

  • Lower fertility – As a woman approaches menopause, the level of estrogen starts to fall which reduces the chances of pregnancy.
  • Irregular periods – One of the first signs of menopause is irregular periods. As a woman approaches menopause, periods start occurring less regularly and may be lighter or heavier.
  • Hot flashes – Around the time of menopause, hot flashes are common. A sudden sensation of heat in the upper body occurs. It may begin in the chest, neck or face and progress downwards or upward. Due to hot flashes, sweating and red patches on the skin occur. Some women might experience cold flashes, chills or night sweats along with or instead of hot flashes. Generally, hot flashes occur in the first year after menstruation ends and can continue for up to 14 years after menopause.
  • Emotional changes – During menopause, it is common to experience anxiety, low mood and depression. Women also experience crying spells and irritability. This is due to hormonal changes as well as sleep disturbances. Sometimes, a woman’s feelings regarding menopause can also contribute to depression and anxiety.
  • Physical changes – During menopause, there may be various physical changes including weight gain, breast tenderness and reduction, a buildup of fat around the abdomen, urinary incontinence, and changes in hair texture, volume, or colour.
  • Vaginal discomfort and dryness – Women might experience vaginal discomfort, itching, and dryness during perimenopause as well as menopause. They might also experience discomfort and chafing during intercourse. In some cases, atrophic vaginitis occurs wherein the vaginal wall becomes thin, dry, and inflamed.
  • Disturbed sleep – Sleep problems arise during menopause, stemming from night sweats, anxiety, and an increased urge to urinate.
  • Trouble learning and focusing – During the years approaching menopause and perimenopause, many women have trouble concentrating and learning.
  • Increased risk of health conditions – It has been observed that after menopause, the risk of certain health issues increases. This isn’t due to menopause itself, but it might be due to the hormonal changes occurring. Conditions such as breast cancer, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis might occur after menopause. 
Diagnosis

Generally, signs and symptoms of menopause are indicators that menopausal transition has begun, so tests aren’t required to diagnose it. However, in some cases, your doctor might recommend blood tests to check the level of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estrogen, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).

Treatment

No medical treatment is required for menopause. Menopause treatment includes options for relieving symptoms of menopause as well as for preventing or managing complications that occur due to menopause.

These include –

  • Hormone therapy – One of the most effective treatment options to find relief from hot flashes is estrogen therapy. Your doctor will recommend the dosage and time frame for the therapy, depending on your personal as well as family medical history.
  • Low-dose antidepressants – Menopausal hot flashes can also be relieved with low-dose antidepressants. This is useful for women who cannot go for estrogen therapy due to health reasons. It is also useful for women who need antidepressants for mood disorders.
  • Vaginal estrogen – Estrogen can be administered directly to the vagina using a vaginal ring, tablet, or cream. This helps to relieve vaginal dryness, discomfort, and other urinary symptoms.
  • Osteoporosis prevention or treatment medication – Various medications can be prescribed to you by your doctor, to strengthen bones as well as reduce bone loss and risk of fractures. 
Lifestyle changes and home remedies

Since most symptoms of menopause are temporary, some lifestyle changes and home remedies can help reduce the effects of menopause, including –

  • Relief from hot flashes – To cool hot flashes, try to wear comfortable clothes that aren’t tight. You can also have a glass of cold water or go to a cooler place. There can be various triggers of hot flashes such as spicy foods, hot weather, alcohol, hot beverages, stress and caffeine. Identify your triggers and try to prevent them.
  • Proper sleep – To manage your menopause symptoms, sleep is essential. Try to avoid consuming too much caffeine or alcohol as this can interrupt sleep. Exercising during the day can also help regulate sleep.
  • Pelvic floor strengthening – To find relief from urinary continence, do pelvic floor exercises also known as Kegel exercises.
  • Avoid smoking – Smoking should be avoided as it can bring on early menopause as well as increase hot flashes. The risk of stroke, cancer, heart disease, and osteoporosis also increases due to smoking.
  • Decrease vaginal discomfort – Vaginal discomfort can be decreased by using water-based or silicone-based lubricants and moisturizers.
  • Regular exercise and balanced diet – A balanced diet, as well as regular exercise, are essential in relieving symptoms of menopause. 

Sometimes, women may experience heavy bleeding during menopause. This might be due to the uterine lining building up. Uterine lining might build-up due to high levels of estrogen or a skipped period. Some women experience bleeding after menopause. This is not normal and you should consult your doctor immediately as it could indicate endometrial cancer or some other complication.

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What is Menopause?

The end of a woman’s menstrual cycle is called menopause. When a woman has gone 12 months without a menstrual period, menopause is diagnosed. Usually, menopause starts between the ages of 47 to 55 years, 51 being the average. In some women, it may start earlier due to underlying medical conditions or previous surgeries.

There are three stages of menopause –
  • Perimenopause – The transitional time before menopause is called perimenopause. This includes the 12 months after a woman’s last period.
  • Menopause When it has been 12 months since a woman’s last period or when menstruation stops due to a clinical reason such as removal of the ovaries, it is called menopause.
  • Postmenopause – The years after menopause is referred to as postmenopause. 
Causes

Menopause can occur due to various reasons, such as –

  • The natural decline in reproductive hormones – The ovaries start to produce less progesterone and estrogen, the hormones are responsible for regulating menstruation, as you approach your late 30s. Due to this, fertility declines. Eventually, the ovaries stop releasing eggs and periods stop.
  • Oophorectomy – Oophorectomy is the surgery to remove the ovaries. This leads to immediate menopause as your periods would stop once the ovaries are removed.
  • Primary ovarian insufficiency – Around 1% of all women experience premature menopause, which is menopause before the age of 40. Generally, there is no exact cause of premature menopause but it can be attributed to the ovaries not producing normal levels of reproductive hormones known as primary ovarian insufficiency. This might be due to autoimmune disease or genetic factors.
  • Chemotherapy and radiation – Radiation and chemotherapy are cancer treatments that can induce menopause. 
Symptoms

Early menopause symptoms include –

  • Vaginal dryness
  • Urinary urgency
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Hot flashes
  • Breast tenderness
  • Fatigue
  • Irregular periods 

Menopause symptoms include –

  • Lower fertility – As a woman approaches menopause, the level of estrogen starts to fall which reduces the chances of pregnancy.
  • Irregular periods – One of the first signs of menopause is irregular periods. As a woman approaches menopause, periods start occurring less regularly and may be lighter or heavier.
  • Hot flashes – Around the time of menopause, hot flashes are common. A sudden sensation of heat in the upper body occurs. It may begin in the chest, neck or face and progress downwards or upward. Due to hot flashes, sweating and red patches on the skin occur. Some women might experience cold flashes, chills or night sweats along with or instead of hot flashes. Generally, hot flashes occur in the first year after menstruation ends and can continue for up to 14 years after menopause.
  • Emotional changes – During menopause, it is common to experience anxiety, low mood and depression. Women also experience crying spells and irritability. This is due to hormonal changes as well as sleep disturbances. Sometimes, a woman’s feelings regarding menopause can also contribute to depression and anxiety.
  • Physical changes – During menopause, there may be various physical changes including weight gain, breast tenderness and reduction, a buildup of fat around the abdomen, urinary incontinence, and changes in hair texture, volume, or colour.
  • Vaginal discomfort and dryness – Women might experience vaginal discomfort, itching, and dryness during perimenopause as well as menopause. They might also experience discomfort and chafing during intercourse. In some cases, atrophic vaginitis occurs wherein the vaginal wall becomes thin, dry, and inflamed.
  • Disturbed sleep – Sleep problems arise during menopause, stemming from night sweats, anxiety, and an increased urge to urinate.
  • Trouble learning and focusing – During the years approaching menopause and perimenopause, many women have trouble concentrating and learning.
  • Increased risk of health conditions – It has been observed that after menopause, the risk of certain health issues increases. This isn’t due to menopause itself, but it might be due to the hormonal changes occurring. Conditions such as breast cancer, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis might occur after menopause. 
Diagnosis

Generally, signs and symptoms of menopause are indicators that menopausal transition has begun, so tests aren’t required to diagnose it. However, in some cases, your doctor might recommend blood tests to check the level of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estrogen, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).

Treatment

No medical treatment is required for menopause. Menopause treatment includes options for relieving symptoms of menopause as well as for preventing or managing complications that occur due to menopause.

These include –

  • Hormone therapy – One of the most effective treatment options to find relief from hot flashes is estrogen therapy. Your doctor will recommend the dosage and time frame for the therapy, depending on your personal as well as family medical history.
  • Low-dose antidepressants – Menopausal hot flashes can also be relieved with low-dose antidepressants. This is useful for women who cannot go for estrogen therapy due to health reasons. It is also useful for women who need antidepressants for mood disorders.
  • Vaginal estrogen – Estrogen can be administered directly to the vagina using a vaginal ring, tablet, or cream. This helps to relieve vaginal dryness, discomfort, and other urinary symptoms.
  • Osteoporosis prevention or treatment medication – Various medications can be prescribed to you by your doctor, to strengthen bones as well as reduce bone loss and risk of fractures. 
Lifestyle changes and home remedies

Since most symptoms of menopause are temporary, some lifestyle changes and home remedies can help reduce the effects of menopause, including –

  • Relief from hot flashes – To cool hot flashes, try to wear comfortable clothes that aren’t tight. You can also have a glass of cold water or go to a cooler place. There can be various triggers of hot flashes such as spicy foods, hot weather, alcohol, hot beverages, stress and caffeine. Identify your triggers and try to prevent them.
  • Proper sleep – To manage your menopause symptoms, sleep is essential. Try to avoid consuming too much caffeine or alcohol as this can interrupt sleep. Exercising during the day can also help regulate sleep.
  • Pelvic floor strengthening – To find relief from urinary continence, do pelvic floor exercises also known as Kegel exercises.
  • Avoid smoking – Smoking should be avoided as it can bring on early menopause as well as increase hot flashes. The risk of stroke, cancer, heart disease, and osteoporosis also increases due to smoking.
  • Decrease vaginal discomfort – Vaginal discomfort can be decreased by using water-based or silicone-based lubricants and moisturizers.
  • Regular exercise and balanced diet – A balanced diet, as well as regular exercise, are essential in relieving symptoms of menopause. 

Sometimes, women may experience heavy bleeding during menopause. This might be due to the uterine lining building up. Uterine lining might build-up due to high levels of estrogen or a skipped period. Some women experience bleeding after menopause. This is not normal and you should consult your doctor immediately as it could indicate endometrial cancer or some other complication.

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Menopause Symptoms & Treatment

Menopause Symptoms & Treatment

March 29, 2024

What is Menopause? The end...

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            [blog_title] => Everything You Need To Know About Using Menstrual Cups
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What are menstrual cups?

Menstrual cups are product for women to use during their menstruation. It is a silicon or rubber funnel-shaped cup that you insert in your vagina. It is small in size and easy to use as it is flexible. It can be used for up to 6 to 12 hours depending on your flow. It is a great eco-friendly and cost-effective alternative to a tampon or sanitary napkin as it is reusable.

Are menstrual cups safe to use?

Unlike tampons or sanitary pads, menstrual cups collect blood instead of absorbing it, and hence are more hygienic. They also hold up to 2 to 3 ounces of blood as compared to tampons that hold only 1/3 ounce. They are more practical and a one-time investment that you can use for years to come. You needn’t be concerned about the effectiveness of menstrual cups – They create an airtight seal in your vagina that avoids any leaks or staining, and can also be used overnight.

How to know what kind of menstrual cup to buy?

Yes, there are menstrual cups available in different sizes and brands. Before you invest in a menstrual cup, you should consider consulting your gynaecologist. Usually, there are two sizes available: small and large. The small cup is recommended for women who are below the age of 30 and have not given birth naturally. On other hand, the large cup is suggested to be used by women who are above the age of 30 and/or have given vaginal birth. It also largely depends on how heavy your flow is, as this differs from woman to woman.

How to use a menstrual cup?

While most women are a little sceptical or confused about how to use a menstrual cup, there is nothing to worry about as it is fairly easy to use.

To put it in:-

Step 1: Make sure your hands are clean. Wash them carefully before using the cup to avoid infections.

Step 2: Apply water or a water-based lubricate on the rim of the cup to insert the cup effortlessly.

Step 3: Fold the menstrual cup in half.

Step 4: Insert the cup rim side facing up into your vagina. It should sit a few inches below your cervix.

Step 5: Rotate the cup once after inserting in your vagina.

Once inserted, you should not feel the cup in your vagina. In case it is a little uncomfortable, it means that you haven’t inserted it properly.

To pull it out:-

Step 1: Begin with washing your hands and making sure that they are clean.

Step 2: Use your index finger and thumb to reach the rim of the cup and then pull out gently.

Step 3: Empty the cup into the toilet or sink and wash until clean for reuse.

How many times can a menstrual cup be reused?

A menstrual cup can be used up to 5 years. However if you can afford to, you should change it every 6 to 12 months. You must clean your menstrual cup in boiling water every month or after every period. Clean out the cup twice a day in order to maintain hygiene and prevent overflow.

Factors to take into consideration before buying a menstrual cup
  • Even though they are environment friendly, if proper care is not taken, they may cause infections or irritation.
  • Always make sure that your cups is clean before you insert it in your vagina, else it may cause an infection.
  • If it is not inserted properly, it may cause spillage and a mess.
  • Never share the cup with anyone for hygiene purposes.
  • In some rare cases, a woman may be allergic to the material used to make these cups. Thus, if you have extra sensitive skin, be sure to consult a doctor before you use it and take extra precaution.
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What are menstrual cups?

Menstrual cups are product for women to use during their menstruation. It is a silicon or rubber funnel-shaped cup that you insert in your vagina. It is small in size and easy to use as it is flexible. It can be used for up to 6 to 12 hours depending on your flow. It is a great eco-friendly and cost-effective alternative to a tampon or sanitary napkin as it is reusable.

Are menstrual cups safe to use?

Unlike tampons or sanitary pads, menstrual cups collect blood instead of absorbing it, and hence are more hygienic. They also hold up to 2 to 3 ounces of blood as compared to tampons that hold only 1/3 ounce. They are more practical and a one-time investment that you can use for years to come. You needn’t be concerned about the effectiveness of menstrual cups – They create an airtight seal in your vagina that avoids any leaks or staining, and can also be used overnight.

How to know what kind of menstrual cup to buy?

Yes, there are menstrual cups available in different sizes and brands. Before you invest in a menstrual cup, you should consider consulting your gynaecologist. Usually, there are two sizes available: small and large. The small cup is recommended for women who are below the age of 30 and have not given birth naturally. On other hand, the large cup is suggested to be used by women who are above the age of 30 and/or have given vaginal birth. It also largely depends on how heavy your flow is, as this differs from woman to woman.

How to use a menstrual cup?

While most women are a little sceptical or confused about how to use a menstrual cup, there is nothing to worry about as it is fairly easy to use.

To put it in:-

Step 1: Make sure your hands are clean. Wash them carefully before using the cup to avoid infections.

Step 2: Apply water or a water-based lubricate on the rim of the cup to insert the cup effortlessly.

Step 3: Fold the menstrual cup in half.

Step 4: Insert the cup rim side facing up into your vagina. It should sit a few inches below your cervix.

Step 5: Rotate the cup once after inserting in your vagina.

Once inserted, you should not feel the cup in your vagina. In case it is a little uncomfortable, it means that you haven’t inserted it properly.

To pull it out:-

Step 1: Begin with washing your hands and making sure that they are clean.

Step 2: Use your index finger and thumb to reach the rim of the cup and then pull out gently.

Step 3: Empty the cup into the toilet or sink and wash until clean for reuse.

How many times can a menstrual cup be reused?

A menstrual cup can be used up to 5 years. However if you can afford to, you should change it every 6 to 12 months. You must clean your menstrual cup in boiling water every month or after every period. Clean out the cup twice a day in order to maintain hygiene and prevent overflow.

Factors to take into consideration before buying a menstrual cup
  • Even though they are environment friendly, if proper care is not taken, they may cause infections or irritation.
  • Always make sure that your cups is clean before you insert it in your vagina, else it may cause an infection.
  • If it is not inserted properly, it may cause spillage and a mess.
  • Never share the cup with anyone for hygiene purposes.
  • In some rare cases, a woman may be allergic to the material used to make these cups. Thus, if you have extra sensitive skin, be sure to consult a doctor before you use it and take extra precaution.
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Everything You Need To Know About Using Menstrual Cups

Everything You Need To Know About Using Menstrual Cups

March 28, 2024

What are menstrual cups? Menstrual cups are product for ...

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            [blog_title] => Considering Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Surgery?
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Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Surgery (MIGS) has come a long way since it was first performed fifty years ago. Today, all gynecologic surgeries can be done with MIGS.

What is Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Surgery (MIGS)?

Unlike an ‘open’ surgery, where one large incision is made, MIGS is done without any incision, or with only a few minor incisions of 0.5 to 2.0 cms. Through these openings, the MIGS instrument, a laparoscope or endoscope is inserted. These instruments have a tiny digital video camera and a light, which enable the operating space inside the body to be seen on monitors around the operating table. The monitors give a high-resolution, magnified 3D image of the operating space, to ensure surgeons can precisely cut and stitch using the instruments. A Hysteroscope is inserted through the cervix to access the uterus without incisions.

Consult our Doctors
Benefits of MIGS:

The benefits of MIGS are smaller incisions, less blood loss, fewer blood transfusions, less pain, improved outcomes, less risk of infection or other complications, shorter or no hospital stay, reduced scar tissue, faster recovery and return to daily activities.

Risks and Complications of MIGS:

Laparoscopy is a complex technique. It is not risk-free, though its risks and complications are fewer than other major procedures. Perioperative and postoperative complications frequency is 4% to 16%. Major complications frequency is 1.7% to 1.9%.

The main complications are hemorrhage, infection, thromboembolism, and visceral (stomach, bladder, uterus, or rectum) damage and vascular injuries.

Experienced surgeons have a significantly smaller number of organ injuries and intraoperative complications requiring laparotomy (opening of abdomen).

Procedures Undertaken with MIGS:

MIGS can be used for hysterectomy (remove all or a part of the uterus), myomectomy (removal of uterine fibroids), endometriosis, adenomyosis, gynecologic cancer (cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancer), ectopic pregnancy, menorrhagia, and peri-menopausal or post-menopausal bleeding, dysmenorrhea (painful period cramps), pelvic pain and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), polyps, adhesions, cysts, abscess, pelvic congestion syndrome, teratomas/dermoids, pelvic organ prolapse and Essure removal.

Just because every gynecologic surgery can be done with MIGS, does not mean that it should be done with MIGS. The surgeon must evaluate the patient to ascertain whether the optimal surgery for her is MIGS or an “open” surgery. Trust your surgeon and follow the advice given.

For more details:

Dr. Prof. Sadhna Kala

MBBS, MS, FICOG, FACS (USA)

Senior Consultant Obstetrics & Gynecology

Apollo Cradle & Children’s Hospital – Nehru Place – New Delhi

For Appointment, Call 9958295296

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Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Surgery (MIGS) has come a long way since it was first performed fifty years ago. Today, all gynecologic surgeries can be done with MIGS.

What is Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Surgery (MIGS)?

Unlike an ‘open’ surgery, where one large incision is made, MIGS is done without any incision, or with only a few minor incisions of 0.5 to 2.0 cms. Through these openings, the MIGS instrument, a laparoscope or endoscope is inserted. These instruments have a tiny digital video camera and a light, which enable the operating space inside the body to be seen on monitors around the operating table. The monitors give a high-resolution, magnified 3D image of the operating space, to ensure surgeons can precisely cut and stitch using the instruments. A Hysteroscope is inserted through the cervix to access the uterus without incisions.

Consult our Doctors
Benefits of MIGS:

The benefits of MIGS are smaller incisions, less blood loss, fewer blood transfusions, less pain, improved outcomes, less risk of infection or other complications, shorter or no hospital stay, reduced scar tissue, faster recovery and return to daily activities.

Risks and Complications of MIGS:

Laparoscopy is a complex technique. It is not risk-free, though its risks and complications are fewer than other major procedures. Perioperative and postoperative complications frequency is 4% to 16%. Major complications frequency is 1.7% to 1.9%.

The main complications are hemorrhage, infection, thromboembolism, and visceral (stomach, bladder, uterus, or rectum) damage and vascular injuries.

Experienced surgeons have a significantly smaller number of organ injuries and intraoperative complications requiring laparotomy (opening of abdomen).

Procedures Undertaken with MIGS:

MIGS can be used for hysterectomy (remove all or a part of the uterus), myomectomy (removal of uterine fibroids), endometriosis, adenomyosis, gynecologic cancer (cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancer), ectopic pregnancy, menorrhagia, and peri-menopausal or post-menopausal bleeding, dysmenorrhea (painful period cramps), pelvic pain and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), polyps, adhesions, cysts, abscess, pelvic congestion syndrome, teratomas/dermoids, pelvic organ prolapse and Essure removal.

Just because every gynecologic surgery can be done with MIGS, does not mean that it should be done with MIGS. The surgeon must evaluate the patient to ascertain whether the optimal surgery for her is MIGS or an “open” surgery. Trust your surgeon and follow the advice given.

For more details:

Dr. Prof. Sadhna Kala

MBBS, MS, FICOG, FACS (USA)

Senior Consultant Obstetrics & Gynecology

Apollo Cradle & Children’s Hospital – Nehru Place – New Delhi

For Appointment, Call 9958295296

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Considering Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Surgery?

Considering Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Surgery?

March 26, 2024

Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Surgery (MIGS) has come a long way ...

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            [blog_title] => Do Contraceptive Pills Adversely Impact A Woman’s Health?
            [metaTitle] => Do Contraceptive Pills Adversely Impact A Woman’s Health?
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Contraceptive pills commonly known as birth control pills or the pill are a form of hormonal contraception. In India, over 139 million women resort to modern contraception methods to prevent pregnancy. Oral contraceptive pills are a highly effective birth control method when taken in the prescribed manner, with only 0.1% of women experiencing an unintended pregnancy. The pills contain a synthetic form of the hormones oestrogen and progesterone, which are naturally produced in the ovaries.

Contraceptive pills prevent pregnancy by preventing ovaries from releasing an egg each month (ovulation), thickening the mucus to prevent the sperm from penetrating or thinning the uterine wall to keep the egg from implanting in the womb. Like all medicines, contraceptive pills can have adverse effects on one’s health that women should be aware of. Usually, the side effects are minor and disappear gradually, however, in some rare cases the pills can cause serious repercussions.

Side Effects of Contraceptive Pills
Headaches & Nausea

One of the most common side effects reported by women taking contraceptive pills is headaches and nausea. This usually happens because of the oestrogen and progesterone in these pills that can trigger headaches or migraine. When first starting on birth control pills, some women may also experience mild nausea because of the hormonal changes in the body which may bring out nausea in some women. Taking the pill with food or before bedtime can reduce the likelihood of nausea. Both headaches and nausea tend to subside with time.

Breakthrough Bleeding

During the first three months of taking the pills, around 50% of women experience breakthrough bleeding or spotting. This is vaginal bleeding and occurs due to the thinning of the uterine wall and because of the changes in the hormonal levels. Spotting may occur with some menstrual cramps. However, by the third month, the spotting tends to subside. Women who experience light bleeding for more than five days or heavy flow for over three days should seek medical assistance.

Apollo Cradle Has the Best Team of Highly Qualified Gynaecologists

Consult our Doctors
 
Cardiovascular Concerns

For some women, oral contraceptive pills can increase their blood pressure. The presence of extra oestrogen and progesterone in the body can also increase the risk of blood clots. However, these effects are most uncommon but when they do present themselves, they can raise serious health concerns. Additionally, women who smoke have higher chances of developing cardiovascular concerns. Women should seek immediate medical assistance if they experience trouble breathing or pain in the chest. 

Liver-related Complications

Contraceptive pills can have a direct impact on a woman’s liver as the pills pass through the liver for metabolism. Oral contraceptives have been known to be associated with certain liver ailments such as sinusoidal dilation, peliosis hepatis, hepatic adenomas, hepatocellular carcinomas and hepatic vein thrombosis. Additionally, long-term usage of birth control pills may increase the risk of forming gallbladder stones and benign liver tumours. Women prone to liver ailments should be wary of oral contraception as it may aggravate their existing issues.

Mood Swings

Some women may experience irritability, mood swings or even depression while on the pill. Ideally, all the hormones in the body should be perfectly balanced but the introduction of artificial hormones, oestrogen and progesterone, can cause hormonal imbalance in the body, leading to moodiness. Women who have previously dealt with depression may find themselves at a higher risk of experiencing mood-related side effects when taking the oral contraceptive pills. It is advisable to discuss the emotional changes or alternatives of the pills with a medical professional in such cases.

Final Thoughts

Although a highly effective and convenient method to prevent unwanted pregnancy, contraceptive pills do come with certain side effects and health ailments. While side-effects like headaches, nausea, spotting and breast tenderness subside with persistent use. Long-term usage can raise other serious health concerns such as hypertension, blood clots, liver-related complications and depression, among others. It is always recommended to visit a hospital or speak to an expert to find out which birth control method may suit your health the best.

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Contraceptive pills commonly known as birth control pills or the pill are a form of hormonal contraception. In India, over 139 million women resort to modern contraception methods to prevent pregnancy. Oral contraceptive pills are a highly effective birth control method when taken in the prescribed manner, with only 0.1% of women experiencing an unintended pregnancy. The pills contain a synthetic form of the hormones oestrogen and progesterone, which are naturally produced in the ovaries.

Contraceptive pills prevent pregnancy by preventing ovaries from releasing an egg each month (ovulation), thickening the mucus to prevent the sperm from penetrating or thinning the uterine wall to keep the egg from implanting in the womb. Like all medicines, contraceptive pills can have adverse effects on one’s health that women should be aware of. Usually, the side effects are minor and disappear gradually, however, in some rare cases the pills can cause serious repercussions.

Side Effects of Contraceptive Pills
Headaches & Nausea

One of the most common side effects reported by women taking contraceptive pills is headaches and nausea. This usually happens because of the oestrogen and progesterone in these pills that can trigger headaches or migraine. When first starting on birth control pills, some women may also experience mild nausea because of the hormonal changes in the body which may bring out nausea in some women. Taking the pill with food or before bedtime can reduce the likelihood of nausea. Both headaches and nausea tend to subside with time.

Breakthrough Bleeding

During the first three months of taking the pills, around 50% of women experience breakthrough bleeding or spotting. This is vaginal bleeding and occurs due to the thinning of the uterine wall and because of the changes in the hormonal levels. Spotting may occur with some menstrual cramps. However, by the third month, the spotting tends to subside. Women who experience light bleeding for more than five days or heavy flow for over three days should seek medical assistance.

Apollo Cradle Has the Best Team of Highly Qualified Gynaecologists

Consult our Doctors
 
Cardiovascular Concerns

For some women, oral contraceptive pills can increase their blood pressure. The presence of extra oestrogen and progesterone in the body can also increase the risk of blood clots. However, these effects are most uncommon but when they do present themselves, they can raise serious health concerns. Additionally, women who smoke have higher chances of developing cardiovascular concerns. Women should seek immediate medical assistance if they experience trouble breathing or pain in the chest. 

Liver-related Complications

Contraceptive pills can have a direct impact on a woman’s liver as the pills pass through the liver for metabolism. Oral contraceptives have been known to be associated with certain liver ailments such as sinusoidal dilation, peliosis hepatis, hepatic adenomas, hepatocellular carcinomas and hepatic vein thrombosis. Additionally, long-term usage of birth control pills may increase the risk of forming gallbladder stones and benign liver tumours. Women prone to liver ailments should be wary of oral contraception as it may aggravate their existing issues.

Mood Swings

Some women may experience irritability, mood swings or even depression while on the pill. Ideally, all the hormones in the body should be perfectly balanced but the introduction of artificial hormones, oestrogen and progesterone, can cause hormonal imbalance in the body, leading to moodiness. Women who have previously dealt with depression may find themselves at a higher risk of experiencing mood-related side effects when taking the oral contraceptive pills. It is advisable to discuss the emotional changes or alternatives of the pills with a medical professional in such cases.

Final Thoughts

Although a highly effective and convenient method to prevent unwanted pregnancy, contraceptive pills do come with certain side effects and health ailments. While side-effects like headaches, nausea, spotting and breast tenderness subside with persistent use. Long-term usage can raise other serious health concerns such as hypertension, blood clots, liver-related complications and depression, among others. It is always recommended to visit a hospital or speak to an expert to find out which birth control method may suit your health the best.

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Do Contraceptive Pills Adversely Impact A Woman’s Health?

Do Contraceptive Pills Adversely Impact A Woman’s Health?

March 22, 2024

Contraceptive pills commonly known as birth control pills or the pil...

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