Paediatrics

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When you hold your baby for the first time you’re unable to describe the feeling. But, once you bring your little angel home, it is possible you get frantic about how to take care of your baby. Especially if you are first time parents. So, here are a few newborn care tips to help you out.

The first guidance can begin from the hospital staff itself. While you are still there, you can ask the doctors and nurses for advice on what all you need to take care of when holding your baby, about breastfeeding & anything else that you wish to ask. Doctors and nurses are always there to help you out. But, there are a few basic tips about handling a newborn on your own.

Hygiene! Hygiene! Hygiene!

Before handling your baby make sure you wash your hands thoroughly or you could also use a hand sanitizer. Your baby does not have a strong immune system as of yet, and is thus prone to infection. Also, make sure that anyone else who wishes to hold your baby cleans their hands properly as well. A very important baby care tip!

Your baby needs support

A newborn is really fragile. So, make sure to support your baby’s head and neck when you pick up your little angel. Place your hand as a cradle behind your baby’s head when you carry your baby and support the head when you carry your little angel upright or are about to lay your baby down.

Do not shake your baby

Whether you want to play with your baby or you are frustrated, make sure you do not shake your baby vigorously. Doing so is dangerous as it can cause bleeding in the brain and even death. If you wish to wake up your baby from sleep then don’t do so by shaking. You can opt for tickling your little angel’s cute & tiny feet or blow on the cheek gently.

Fasten your baby securely

If you’re going to carry your baby in a carrier, stroller or car seat, make sure to fasten securely. Avoid any activity that could be too rough or bouncy. Your little bundle of joy is not yet ready for it.

No rough play

Your baby has just been born. Just came into this world. Rough play is not exactly the best greeting. Even jiggling on the knee and playing by throwing your baby in the air should be avoided.

Well, these were just few basic tips on how you can handle your newborn. There is a lot more to it.
Consult our experts to know more on how to care for your baby. Visit www.apollocradle.com

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When you hold your baby for the first time you’re unable to describe the feeling. But, once you bring your little angel home, it is possible you get frantic about how to take care of your baby. Especially if you are first time parents. So, here are a few newborn care tips to help you out.

The first guidance can begin from the hospital staff itself. While you are still there, you can ask the doctors and nurses for advice on what all you need to take care of when holding your baby, about breastfeeding & anything else that you wish to ask. Doctors and nurses are always there to help you out. But, there are a few basic tips about handling a newborn on your own.

Hygiene! Hygiene! Hygiene!

Before handling your baby make sure you wash your hands thoroughly or you could also use a hand sanitizer. Your baby does not have a strong immune system as of yet, and is thus prone to infection. Also, make sure that anyone else who wishes to hold your baby cleans their hands properly as well. A very important baby care tip!

Your baby needs support

A newborn is really fragile. So, make sure to support your baby’s head and neck when you pick up your little angel. Place your hand as a cradle behind your baby’s head when you carry your baby and support the head when you carry your little angel upright or are about to lay your baby down.

Do not shake your baby

Whether you want to play with your baby or you are frustrated, make sure you do not shake your baby vigorously. Doing so is dangerous as it can cause bleeding in the brain and even death. If you wish to wake up your baby from sleep then don’t do so by shaking. You can opt for tickling your little angel’s cute & tiny feet or blow on the cheek gently.

Fasten your baby securely

If you’re going to carry your baby in a carrier, stroller or car seat, make sure to fasten securely. Avoid any activity that could be too rough or bouncy. Your little bundle of joy is not yet ready for it.

No rough play

Your baby has just been born. Just came into this world. Rough play is not exactly the best greeting. Even jiggling on the knee and playing by throwing your baby in the air should be avoided.

Well, these were just few basic tips on how you can handle your newborn. There is a lot more to it.
Consult our experts to know more on how to care for your baby. Visit www.apollocradle.com

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Baby Care Tips You Should Know

Baby Care Tips You Should Know

December 23, 2023

When you hold your baby for the first time you’re unable to de...

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            [blog_title] => What is a PICU?
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Caring for a critically ill child can be stressful and difficult. This is especially true when your child is admitted into a Paediatric Intensive Care Unit. However, what can help in times like these is an understanding of the PICU and its workings. Understanding the functioning of a Paediatric Intensive Care Unit can help ease some of the stress during the time of your child’s admission.

So, what exactly is a PICU, and what does it involve? Let’s find out.

What’s a Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU)?

It is a section of the hospital that provides sick children with the highest level of medical care. The unit differs from other sections of the hospital, like the general medical floors. A PICU comes with intensive nursing care and continuous monitoring of aspects like breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure of the child.

The Paediatric Intensive Care Unit also allows the medical staff to provide medical therapies that might not be available in other sections of the hospital. Some of these intensive therapies include ventilators (breathing machines) and certain medicines that can be offered only under close supervision.

Who gets admitted?

Any critically ill patient, from newborns to young adults, can be admitted into the PICU, although, infants that have just been born are sent to the NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit). Most patients are under the age of eighteen. Some, with rare diseases, might be a tad bit older.

What’s so special about a Paediatric Intensive Care Unit?

At this unit, the physicians, nurses and specialists have considerable knowledge and skillsets to assess, diagnose and treat your child well to have the best possible outcome. The primary objective is to enhance survival, augment recovery, minimise pain and mitigate any risk of disability. Some PICUs may also come with the latest technology and infrastructure to enable superlative treatment plans rooted in globally aligned innovations.

When is a Paediatric Intensive Care Unit needed?

It is usually needed to handle post-operative care or treat serious injuries and illnesses that include:

  1. Congenital abnormalities
  2. Autoimmune disorders
  3. Complex surgery
  4. Severe infection
  5. Physical trauma
  6. Medication overdose
  7. Food poisoning

Who takes care of kids in a PICU?

A PICU comes with highly skilled professionals. Nurses working at a PICU are experienced at caring for the sickest children at the hospital. Different physicians will care for your child, along with the attending physician in charge. Other subspecialists such as cardiologists and neurosurgeons will also be involved, depending on the needs of your child. Respiratory therapists are experienced in ventilators and other breathing equipment and are often involved in the care of PICU patients with breathing problems.

The unit might also have pharmacists, nutritionists, occupational therapists and physical therapists who will be participating in your child’s care. A group of doctors, nurses and others might be walking from one patient to another, planning the medical care for each patient. Parents might also have to adhere to rules like staying in the child’s room as instructed and to not enter or exit the PICU. This can help protect the privacy of other patients.

Just like how a NICU takes specialised care of a newborn baby, a PICU takes care of children with health problems and serious issues. Find out the details of the PICU at your hospital to ensure that your child gets the best of care at the right time.

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Caring for a critically ill child can be stressful and difficult. This is especially true when your child is admitted into a Paediatric Intensive Care Unit. However, what can help in times like these is an understanding of the PICU and its workings. Understanding the functioning of a Paediatric Intensive Care Unit can help ease some of the stress during the time of your child’s admission.

So, what exactly is a PICU, and what does it involve? Let’s find out.

What’s a Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU)?

It is a section of the hospital that provides sick children with the highest level of medical care. The unit differs from other sections of the hospital, like the general medical floors. A PICU comes with intensive nursing care and continuous monitoring of aspects like breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure of the child.

The Paediatric Intensive Care Unit also allows the medical staff to provide medical therapies that might not be available in other sections of the hospital. Some of these intensive therapies include ventilators (breathing machines) and certain medicines that can be offered only under close supervision.

Who gets admitted?

Any critically ill patient, from newborns to young adults, can be admitted into the PICU, although, infants that have just been born are sent to the NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit). Most patients are under the age of eighteen. Some, with rare diseases, might be a tad bit older.

What’s so special about a Paediatric Intensive Care Unit?

At this unit, the physicians, nurses and specialists have considerable knowledge and skillsets to assess, diagnose and treat your child well to have the best possible outcome. The primary objective is to enhance survival, augment recovery, minimise pain and mitigate any risk of disability. Some PICUs may also come with the latest technology and infrastructure to enable superlative treatment plans rooted in globally aligned innovations.

When is a Paediatric Intensive Care Unit needed?

It is usually needed to handle post-operative care or treat serious injuries and illnesses that include:

  1. Congenital abnormalities
  2. Autoimmune disorders
  3. Complex surgery
  4. Severe infection
  5. Physical trauma
  6. Medication overdose
  7. Food poisoning

Who takes care of kids in a PICU?

A PICU comes with highly skilled professionals. Nurses working at a PICU are experienced at caring for the sickest children at the hospital. Different physicians will care for your child, along with the attending physician in charge. Other subspecialists such as cardiologists and neurosurgeons will also be involved, depending on the needs of your child. Respiratory therapists are experienced in ventilators and other breathing equipment and are often involved in the care of PICU patients with breathing problems.

The unit might also have pharmacists, nutritionists, occupational therapists and physical therapists who will be participating in your child’s care. A group of doctors, nurses and others might be walking from one patient to another, planning the medical care for each patient. Parents might also have to adhere to rules like staying in the child’s room as instructed and to not enter or exit the PICU. This can help protect the privacy of other patients.

Just like how a NICU takes specialised care of a newborn baby, a PICU takes care of children with health problems and serious issues. Find out the details of the PICU at your hospital to ensure that your child gets the best of care at the right time.

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What is a PICU?

What is a PICU?

October 27, 2023

Caring for a critically ill child can be str...

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            [blog_title] => 12 Simple Ways to Help Encourage Your Baby to Crawl
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Babies will reach several milestones in life. They will eventually progress from rolling around on their play mat to crawling across the room.

Crawling is a significant developmental step from stationary to mobile, a huge milestone for your baby! It allows babies to explore their surroundings, which helps them learn and improve motor skills for walking.

12 Simple Ways to Reach Baby Milestone

  1. Give Your Baby Adequate Tummy Time

One of the best ways to prepare babies for crawling is lots of tummy time or floor time. 

Tummy time is a short period when babies lie on their stomachs. It helps babies develop the muscles needed to crawl by strengthening their neck, arms, shoulders, and torso.

Your baby can do 3-5 minute tummy-time sessions three or four times a day. For three-month-old babies, this increases to 15 to 20 minutes at a time, and for six-month-olds, it increases to 20 to 30 minutes.

Tummy time is only safe when your baby is awake and must always be closely supervised. Never leave babies alone during tummy time. If babies nod off, gently roll them onto their backs.

  1. Encourage Babies to Play With Their Hands Raised

Another way to help babies grow their muscles is to have them play with their hands raised. During tummy time, keep their arms on top of a pillow or stuffed animal.

Encourage them to rest their hands on elevated objects like furniture or toys while sitting. Keep an eye on babies, so they don’t fall.

Apollo Cradle Has the Best Team of Highly Qualified Gynaecologists

 
  1. Get Your Child off the Floor

The importance of preparing babies to crawl is to strengthen those tiny muscles. Lift babies off the ground a little to help them exercise their legs.

Pick up babies by the arms or armpits to support their body weight so that their feet touch the floor. This allows them to practice walking motions and strengthens their legs.

  1. Let Your Baby Play in Front of a Mirror

Another effective way to encourage crawling is to use a mirror during tummy time. Allow babies to spend time in front of it playing. 

Babies are naturally curious and may want to investigate their reflection, which may cause them to hold themselves up and reach for the mirror. These movements will help babies crawl quickly.

Make sure the mirror is carefully placed on the floor, and always supervise babies.

  1. Use Toys to Entice Them

A little reward is the best way to get babies moving. Put babies on the floor and place baby-safe toys slightly out of reach during tummy time to get them moving. 

Keep these toys far enough so that babies have to move around to get them, but not so far that they become frustrated!

Try a play tunnel to entice babies to crawl through it to you.

  1. Limit Positioners and Supportive Devices

While supporting devices are essential, they may inhibit babies’ natural movements.

Allowing babies to spend more time in strollers, high chairs, car seats, and walkers can keep them from relying on their muscles to support their weight. This can delay their development, so limit time in supportive devices.

  1. Allow Your Baby to Play on All Sides

Move babies into different positions and allow them to play on all sides during playtime.

An even mix of right and left sides, back, and tummy will help babies’ bodies develop strength.

  1. Place Your Baby in a Crawling Position

Allow babies to practise crawling! One effective way to do it is to lie next to babies and gently support their body weight while still allowing their hands and feet to touch the ground. This helps them get familiar with the feeling and movement of crawling.

  1. Crawl With Your Baby on the Floor

Mothers are their babies’ biggest supporters, and if they show them how to crawl, babies may learn to crawl quickly.

Get down on your hands and knees and show them how to crawl to help them. Encourage them with smiles and talk to lift their head and look at you.

If you have older children, this is an excellent way to involve them in their new sibling’s play.

  1. Don’t Make Your Baby Work Too Hard

Try to be patient and enjoy yourself with your loved one. It’s okay to call it off if babies grow frustrated or start crying during playtime. Simply lay them on their backs, hold and rock them, or allow them to sleep.

If babies aren’t enjoying their playtime, don’t make them do it, and always reward them with affection after crawling exercises are over.

  1. Give Your Baby a Massage

Massage babies every day to help their muscles grow strong. Introduce baby massage into their bedtime routine or give them a massage right after their bath. 

Regular massages can help babies crawl because they move their muscles, get their blood flowing, and increase their awareness of their bodies’ position and movement.

  1. Provide a Safe Space for Them to Explore

With babies rolling around and almost crawling, it’s a good idea to give them a safe place to explore. 

Begin by baby-proofing the home. Remove small items from the floor, keep cords out of reach, lock cabinets and drawers, cover electrical outlets, and more. Keep the floor clear and clean, and place things on the floor that are safe to explore. 

You can even dress them in long sleeves and pants to help them move more freely and avoid minor scratches or infections.

Take Away

Babies will have a whole new world to explore and learn once they start crawling, but they might need some help to achieve this developmental milestone. You can help them develop the strength and balance they need to become more mobile.

If you want to learn more about crawling or have concerns about your baby’s development, contact a pediatrician at Apollo Cradle & Children’s Hospital. Our team of specialists provide the highest quality pediatric services to patients so that your baby can experience many more developmental milestones healthily.

Apollo Cradle Specialist

Best Gynaecologist in Hyderabad Best Pediatrician in Hyderabad
Best Gynaecologist in Bangalore Best Pediatrician in Bangalore
Best Gynaecologist in New Delhi Best Pediatrician in New Delhi
Best Gynaecologist in Amritsar Best Pediatrician in Amritsar
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Babies will reach several milestones in life. They will eventually progress from rolling around on their play mat to crawling across the room.

Crawling is a significant developmental step from stationary to mobile, a huge milestone for your baby! It allows babies to explore their surroundings, which helps them learn and improve motor skills for walking.

12 Simple Ways to Reach Baby Milestone

  1. Give Your Baby Adequate Tummy Time

One of the best ways to prepare babies for crawling is lots of tummy time or floor time. 

Tummy time is a short period when babies lie on their stomachs. It helps babies develop the muscles needed to crawl by strengthening their neck, arms, shoulders, and torso.

Your baby can do 3-5 minute tummy-time sessions three or four times a day. For three-month-old babies, this increases to 15 to 20 minutes at a time, and for six-month-olds, it increases to 20 to 30 minutes.

Tummy time is only safe when your baby is awake and must always be closely supervised. Never leave babies alone during tummy time. If babies nod off, gently roll them onto their backs.

  1. Encourage Babies to Play With Their Hands Raised

Another way to help babies grow their muscles is to have them play with their hands raised. During tummy time, keep their arms on top of a pillow or stuffed animal.

Encourage them to rest their hands on elevated objects like furniture or toys while sitting. Keep an eye on babies, so they don’t fall.

Apollo Cradle Has the Best Team of Highly Qualified Gynaecologists

 
  1. Get Your Child off the Floor

The importance of preparing babies to crawl is to strengthen those tiny muscles. Lift babies off the ground a little to help them exercise their legs.

Pick up babies by the arms or armpits to support their body weight so that their feet touch the floor. This allows them to practice walking motions and strengthens their legs.

  1. Let Your Baby Play in Front of a Mirror

Another effective way to encourage crawling is to use a mirror during tummy time. Allow babies to spend time in front of it playing. 

Babies are naturally curious and may want to investigate their reflection, which may cause them to hold themselves up and reach for the mirror. These movements will help babies crawl quickly.

Make sure the mirror is carefully placed on the floor, and always supervise babies.

  1. Use Toys to Entice Them

A little reward is the best way to get babies moving. Put babies on the floor and place baby-safe toys slightly out of reach during tummy time to get them moving. 

Keep these toys far enough so that babies have to move around to get them, but not so far that they become frustrated!

Try a play tunnel to entice babies to crawl through it to you.

  1. Limit Positioners and Supportive Devices

While supporting devices are essential, they may inhibit babies’ natural movements.

Allowing babies to spend more time in strollers, high chairs, car seats, and walkers can keep them from relying on their muscles to support their weight. This can delay their development, so limit time in supportive devices.

  1. Allow Your Baby to Play on All Sides

Move babies into different positions and allow them to play on all sides during playtime.

An even mix of right and left sides, back, and tummy will help babies’ bodies develop strength.

  1. Place Your Baby in a Crawling Position

Allow babies to practise crawling! One effective way to do it is to lie next to babies and gently support their body weight while still allowing their hands and feet to touch the ground. This helps them get familiar with the feeling and movement of crawling.

  1. Crawl With Your Baby on the Floor

Mothers are their babies’ biggest supporters, and if they show them how to crawl, babies may learn to crawl quickly.

Get down on your hands and knees and show them how to crawl to help them. Encourage them with smiles and talk to lift their head and look at you.

If you have older children, this is an excellent way to involve them in their new sibling’s play.

  1. Don’t Make Your Baby Work Too Hard

Try to be patient and enjoy yourself with your loved one. It’s okay to call it off if babies grow frustrated or start crying during playtime. Simply lay them on their backs, hold and rock them, or allow them to sleep.

If babies aren’t enjoying their playtime, don’t make them do it, and always reward them with affection after crawling exercises are over.

  1. Give Your Baby a Massage

Massage babies every day to help their muscles grow strong. Introduce baby massage into their bedtime routine or give them a massage right after their bath. 

Regular massages can help babies crawl because they move their muscles, get their blood flowing, and increase their awareness of their bodies’ position and movement.

  1. Provide a Safe Space for Them to Explore

With babies rolling around and almost crawling, it’s a good idea to give them a safe place to explore. 

Begin by baby-proofing the home. Remove small items from the floor, keep cords out of reach, lock cabinets and drawers, cover electrical outlets, and more. Keep the floor clear and clean, and place things on the floor that are safe to explore. 

You can even dress them in long sleeves and pants to help them move more freely and avoid minor scratches or infections.

Take Away

Babies will have a whole new world to explore and learn once they start crawling, but they might need some help to achieve this developmental milestone. You can help them develop the strength and balance they need to become more mobile.

If you want to learn more about crawling or have concerns about your baby’s development, contact a pediatrician at Apollo Cradle & Children’s Hospital. Our team of specialists provide the highest quality pediatric services to patients so that your baby can experience many more developmental milestones healthily.

Apollo Cradle Specialist

Best Gynaecologist in Hyderabad Best Pediatrician in Hyderabad
Best Gynaecologist in Bangalore Best Pediatrician in Bangalore
Best Gynaecologist in New Delhi Best Pediatrician in New Delhi
Best Gynaecologist in Amritsar Best Pediatrician in Amritsar
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12 Simple Ways to Help Encourage Your Baby to Crawl

12 Simple Ways to Help Encourage Your Baby to Crawl

January 31, 2023

Babies will reach several milestones in life. They will eventually p...

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Inquisitive and adventurous – that’s how most of the children are and should be. Their natural tendency to explore, play and experiment is Nature’s way to teach them about growing up in our world.  As adults, our responsibility is to nurture and encourage this spirit in children, while always looking out for their safety and wellbeing.  The objective of Apollo Cradle & Children’s Hospital Guide is to ensure that children remain safe from accidents & injuries; and, in case, they do get injured, to act as a referral for immediate, correct first aid procedures to be followed.

BLEEDING:

  • Furniture with sharp corners and edges is the primary reason for severe cuts and injuries at home. We recommend use of table edge guards and corner protectors, as a safety precaution
  • Rearrange furniture to provide a clear area for the child to crawl, walk and play. Remove obstructions such as coffee table, shoes, toys and other things, on which the child may trip
  • Keep sharp items like knives and scissors out of the reach of children

BURNS:

  • Most domestic injuries occur due to spilling of hot beverages like tea, coffee, milk and soup. DO NOT drink hot beverages with a child in your lap
  • While you take necessary precautions while ironing clothes, the real danger could be from the hot iron AFTER you finish. Ensure the iron is kept out of the reach of children.
  • We strongly advise parents NOT to allow children to play in the kitchen or to carry a baby while cooking

FALLS:

  • We recommend that babies be put to sleep in cribs or on low mattresses. AVOID making the baby sleep on a bed surrounded by pillows.
  • Change diapers with the baby lying on the floor. During changing, always keep one hand on the baby.
  • Place safety gates on staircases
  • Install grills on windows and balcony, with spacing of not more than 3 inches

POISONING:

Keep all cleaning agents, repellents, medicines, acid-based substances, away from the child’s reach

Store cleaning agents and other potentially dangerous liquids in their original bottles. DO NOT transfer these into water bottles or soft drink / juice containers.

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Inquisitive and adventurous – that’s how most of the children are and should be. Their natural tendency to explore, play and experiment is Nature’s way to teach them about growing up in our world.  As adults, our responsibility is to nurture and encourage this spirit in children, while always looking out for their safety and wellbeing.  The objective of Apollo Cradle & Children’s Hospital Guide is to ensure that children remain safe from accidents & injuries; and, in case, they do get injured, to act as a referral for immediate, correct first aid procedures to be followed.

BLEEDING:

  • Furniture with sharp corners and edges is the primary reason for severe cuts and injuries at home. We recommend use of table edge guards and corner protectors, as a safety precaution
  • Rearrange furniture to provide a clear area for the child to crawl, walk and play. Remove obstructions such as coffee table, shoes, toys and other things, on which the child may trip
  • Keep sharp items like knives and scissors out of the reach of children

BURNS:

  • Most domestic injuries occur due to spilling of hot beverages like tea, coffee, milk and soup. DO NOT drink hot beverages with a child in your lap
  • While you take necessary precautions while ironing clothes, the real danger could be from the hot iron AFTER you finish. Ensure the iron is kept out of the reach of children.
  • We strongly advise parents NOT to allow children to play in the kitchen or to carry a baby while cooking

FALLS:

  • We recommend that babies be put to sleep in cribs or on low mattresses. AVOID making the baby sleep on a bed surrounded by pillows.
  • Change diapers with the baby lying on the floor. During changing, always keep one hand on the baby.
  • Place safety gates on staircases
  • Install grills on windows and balcony, with spacing of not more than 3 inches

POISONING:

Keep all cleaning agents, repellents, medicines, acid-based substances, away from the child’s reach

Store cleaning agents and other potentially dangerous liquids in their original bottles. DO NOT transfer these into water bottles or soft drink / juice containers.

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Child Safety at Home

Child Safety at Home

December 19, 2022

Inquisitive and adventurous – that&...

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            [blog_title] => Understanding Paediatric Brain Tumours: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment
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Even the mere mention of brain tumours can send shivers down one’s spine. Moreover, trying to fathom its impact on a child can be too difficult.

Sadly, many parents have to face this harsh reality and watch their little ones suffer its consequences.

Experts say that the most prevalent form of solid childhood cancer is paediatric brain tumours, ranking second only to leukaemia in terms of causing malignancies in children.

Understanding this condition better can help parents deal with it.

Let’s take a closer look at paediatric brain tumours, the causes, symptoms and treatment of paediatric brain tumours.

What Are Paediatric Brain Tumours?

A paediatric brain tumour is an unusual growth of cells in a child’s brain. This abnormal growth usually starts because of changes in the genes of a brain cell. These gene changes cause the cell to form a tumour.

These tumours can appear from when a child is born until they become a teenager.

These tumours have two main types: cancerous (malignant) and non-cancerous (benign). The difference between them is important because cancerous tumours can spread more seriously, while non-cancerous tumours usually stay in one place and are less harmful.

Understanding these different types of paediatric brain tumours helps doctors figure out the best way to treat and care for kids facing these challenges.

Causes and Risk Factors

The exact causes of paediatric brain tumours are often not well understood, and in many cases, they arise sporadically without a clear explanation.

Here are some causes of paediatric brain tumour suggested by experts:

  1. Genetic Factors: In some cases, genetic factors play a role, and certain genetic conditions may increase the risk of developing brain tumours. Examples include neurofibromatosis, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, and tuberous sclerosis.
  2. Radiation Exposure: Exposure to ionizing radiation, particularly at a young age, is considered a risk factor for developing brain tumours. This can include radiation therapy for other medical conditions.
  3. Inherited Syndromes: Some genetic syndromes are associated with an increased risk of paediatric brain tumours. For instance, children with certain inherited conditions, such as Li-Fraumeni syndrome or Turcot syndrome, may have a higher susceptibility.
  4. Family History: While most cases of paediatric brain tumours occur without a family history, there are instances where a family history of brain tumours or certain cancers may contribute to an increased risk.
  5. Certain Medical Conditions: Children with certain medical conditions, such as immune system disorders or conditions that affect hormone levels, may have a higher risk.

Signs and Symptoms

The manifestations of a brain tumour in children can vary widely, depending upon factors like tumour type, size, location, and growth rate. Identifying these signs may be challenging as they can mimic symptoms of other conditions.

Common symptoms of a paediatric brain tumour encompass:

  1. Headaches, which may intensify in frequency and severity.
  2. Sensation of increased pressure in the head.
  3. Unexplained nausea or vomiting.
  4. Sudden onset of vision problems, such as double vision.

Additional signs contingent on tumour location include:

  1. A fuller soft spot on the skull in babies.
  2. Seizures, particularly without a history of prior seizures.
  3. Abnormal eye movement.
  4. Slurred speech.
  5. Difficulty swallowing.
  6. Loss of appetite, or in infants, feeding difficulties.
  7. Issues with balance and walking.
  8. Weakness or loss of sensation in an arm or leg.
  9. Weakness or drooping on one side of the face.
  10. Confusion, irritability.
  11. Memory problems.
  12. Changes in personality or behaviour.
  13. Hearing problems.

Diagnosis and Medical Evaluation

If the doctor suspects your child might have a brain tumour, they will recommend various tests to confirm the diagnosis and decide on the best treatment. Here’s what these tests may involve:

1. Neurological Exam:

The doctor will check your child’s vision, hearing, balance, coordination, strength, and reflexes.

Any difficulties observed can give clues about the part of the brain affected by the tumour.

2. Imaging Tests:

These tests help identify the location and size of the brain tumour.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is commonly used, and sometimes, special types like functional MRI or magnetic resonance spectroscopy may be added.

Other imaging tests may include Computerized Tomography (CT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET).

3. Biopsy:

If surgery is needed to remove the tumour, a sample of tissue will be taken for testing.

In cases where surgery might be challenging, a stereotactic needle biopsy may be done. This involves a small hole in the skull and a thin needle to remove tissue for analysis.

4. Precision Medicine Diagnosis:

Tumour tissue can be tested for genetic mutations and molecular details, helping tailor targeted drug therapy to the individual’s needs.

5. Tests for Spread:

If there’s concern that the tumour originated from elsewhere in the body, additional tests will determine its primary source.

 

Treatment Options

Surgery: In treating brain tumours in infants and children, surgery is often a crucial step. Surgical removal, or at least a biopsy, is commonly recommended. The primary goal may be to remove as much of the tumour as safely as possible, addressing intracranial pressure caused by the tumour. In cases of low-grade or slow-growing tumours, surgery might suffice as the sole intervention.

Radiation Therapy: This therapeutic approach directs high-energy radiation beams at the tumour tissue and a small surrounding area. Certain tumours, like medulloblastoma, may necessitate additional radiation to the entire brain and spinal cord. However, caution is exercised when applying radiation to infants and toddlers due to the sensitivity of their developing brains.

Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy proves effective for various brain tumour types, particularly aggressive, high-grade tumours. Administration methods include:

  • Oral pills.
  • Intravenous infusion (IV).
  • Injection directly into the cerebrospinal fluid.
  • Injection into the cavity post-surgical removal of a brain tumour.

The versatility in administration allows for tailored treatment based on the specific characteristics of the tumour.

Support and Coping

Facilitate open communication among yourself, your family, and caregivers. Establish a sense of structure for both you and your child, seeking assistance when necessary. Tap into available resources such as counselling, reading material or interviews of other parents.

Knowing about paediatric brain tumour, the symptoms and treatment for paediatric brain tumour is crucial for early detection and better treatment. Recognizing symptoms, studying causes, and improving treatments are important. Working together to spread awareness can bring hope for better outcomes in children with this challenging medical condition.

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Even the mere mention of brain tumours can send shivers down one’s spine. Moreover, trying to fathom its impact on a child can be too difficult.

Sadly, many parents have to face this harsh reality and watch their little ones suffer its consequences.

Experts say that the most prevalent form of solid childhood cancer is paediatric brain tumours, ranking second only to leukaemia in terms of causing malignancies in children.

Understanding this condition better can help parents deal with it.

Let’s take a closer look at paediatric brain tumours, the causes, symptoms and treatment of paediatric brain tumours.

What Are Paediatric Brain Tumours?

A paediatric brain tumour is an unusual growth of cells in a child’s brain. This abnormal growth usually starts because of changes in the genes of a brain cell. These gene changes cause the cell to form a tumour.

These tumours can appear from when a child is born until they become a teenager.

These tumours have two main types: cancerous (malignant) and non-cancerous (benign). The difference between them is important because cancerous tumours can spread more seriously, while non-cancerous tumours usually stay in one place and are less harmful.

Understanding these different types of paediatric brain tumours helps doctors figure out the best way to treat and care for kids facing these challenges.

Causes and Risk Factors

The exact causes of paediatric brain tumours are often not well understood, and in many cases, they arise sporadically without a clear explanation.

Here are some causes of paediatric brain tumour suggested by experts:

  1. Genetic Factors: In some cases, genetic factors play a role, and certain genetic conditions may increase the risk of developing brain tumours. Examples include neurofibromatosis, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, and tuberous sclerosis.
  2. Radiation Exposure: Exposure to ionizing radiation, particularly at a young age, is considered a risk factor for developing brain tumours. This can include radiation therapy for other medical conditions.
  3. Inherited Syndromes: Some genetic syndromes are associated with an increased risk of paediatric brain tumours. For instance, children with certain inherited conditions, such as Li-Fraumeni syndrome or Turcot syndrome, may have a higher susceptibility.
  4. Family History: While most cases of paediatric brain tumours occur without a family history, there are instances where a family history of brain tumours or certain cancers may contribute to an increased risk.
  5. Certain Medical Conditions: Children with certain medical conditions, such as immune system disorders or conditions that affect hormone levels, may have a higher risk.

Signs and Symptoms

The manifestations of a brain tumour in children can vary widely, depending upon factors like tumour type, size, location, and growth rate. Identifying these signs may be challenging as they can mimic symptoms of other conditions.

Common symptoms of a paediatric brain tumour encompass:

  1. Headaches, which may intensify in frequency and severity.
  2. Sensation of increased pressure in the head.
  3. Unexplained nausea or vomiting.
  4. Sudden onset of vision problems, such as double vision.

Additional signs contingent on tumour location include:

  1. A fuller soft spot on the skull in babies.
  2. Seizures, particularly without a history of prior seizures.
  3. Abnormal eye movement.
  4. Slurred speech.
  5. Difficulty swallowing.
  6. Loss of appetite, or in infants, feeding difficulties.
  7. Issues with balance and walking.
  8. Weakness or loss of sensation in an arm or leg.
  9. Weakness or drooping on one side of the face.
  10. Confusion, irritability.
  11. Memory problems.
  12. Changes in personality or behaviour.
  13. Hearing problems.

Diagnosis and Medical Evaluation

If the doctor suspects your child might have a brain tumour, they will recommend various tests to confirm the diagnosis and decide on the best treatment. Here’s what these tests may involve:

1. Neurological Exam:

The doctor will check your child’s vision, hearing, balance, coordination, strength, and reflexes.

Any difficulties observed can give clues about the part of the brain affected by the tumour.

2. Imaging Tests:

These tests help identify the location and size of the brain tumour.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is commonly used, and sometimes, special types like functional MRI or magnetic resonance spectroscopy may be added.

Other imaging tests may include Computerized Tomography (CT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET).

3. Biopsy:

If surgery is needed to remove the tumour, a sample of tissue will be taken for testing.

In cases where surgery might be challenging, a stereotactic needle biopsy may be done. This involves a small hole in the skull and a thin needle to remove tissue for analysis.

4. Precision Medicine Diagnosis:

Tumour tissue can be tested for genetic mutations and molecular details, helping tailor targeted drug therapy to the individual’s needs.

5. Tests for Spread:

If there’s concern that the tumour originated from elsewhere in the body, additional tests will determine its primary source.

 

Treatment Options

Surgery: In treating brain tumours in infants and children, surgery is often a crucial step. Surgical removal, or at least a biopsy, is commonly recommended. The primary goal may be to remove as much of the tumour as safely as possible, addressing intracranial pressure caused by the tumour. In cases of low-grade or slow-growing tumours, surgery might suffice as the sole intervention.

Radiation Therapy: This therapeutic approach directs high-energy radiation beams at the tumour tissue and a small surrounding area. Certain tumours, like medulloblastoma, may necessitate additional radiation to the entire brain and spinal cord. However, caution is exercised when applying radiation to infants and toddlers due to the sensitivity of their developing brains.

Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy proves effective for various brain tumour types, particularly aggressive, high-grade tumours. Administration methods include:

  • Oral pills.
  • Intravenous infusion (IV).
  • Injection directly into the cerebrospinal fluid.
  • Injection into the cavity post-surgical removal of a brain tumour.

The versatility in administration allows for tailored treatment based on the specific characteristics of the tumour.

Support and Coping

Facilitate open communication among yourself, your family, and caregivers. Establish a sense of structure for both you and your child, seeking assistance when necessary. Tap into available resources such as counselling, reading material or interviews of other parents.

Knowing about paediatric brain tumour, the symptoms and treatment for paediatric brain tumour is crucial for early detection and better treatment. Recognizing symptoms, studying causes, and improving treatments are important. Working together to spread awareness can bring hope for better outcomes in children with this challenging medical condition.

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Understanding Paediatric Brain Tumours: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

Understanding Paediatric Brain Tumours: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

September 27, 2022

Even the mere mention of brain tumours can send shivers down one&rsq...

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            [blog_title] => 5 things to know about a NICU
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The neonatal Intensive Care unit, called the NICU, is a fundamental unit setup for newborn children. Premature infants and other babies brought into the world with disorders can frequently be kept in a NICU for extra care. At the point when a youngster has weakness, breathing issues, apnoea, hypoglycaemia, sepsis and other medical issues that need monitoring, you will be suggested to have your baby in a NICU for a couple of days.

Why keep infants in NICU?

On the off chance that you experience issues during birth, your newborn child will be recommended to be in NICU care for a few days. During this time, specialists and master medical attendants are consistently on rounds to keep a watch on the baby. Your infant will be taken care of, and all the appropriate treatments will be administered by experts.

About NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit)

What does the NICU comprise?

The NICU comprises High-frequency ventilators, bili lights, blood pressure monitors, cardiopulmonary monitor, central line, CPAP, endotracheal tube, gastrostomy tube, incubator, umbilical catheter, feeding tubes, and other similar equipment. It is equipped with all the necessities, and you won’t need to stress over your child’s health and well-being. You can leave it to the specialists to take all of this into consideration. There will be doctors, dieticians, medical caretakers, neonatologists, resident doctors, and a few different specialists consistently taking care of things.

What does a neonatal intensive care unit look like?

The first time you enter a neonatal emergency unit, it can feel overwhelming.

What will strike you the most is a series of taps or antibacterial hand gel distributors at the passage. You need to wash your hands with a disinfecting cleanser for a few minutes before you enter. Children are prone to infections, and appropriate hand-cleaning lowers the likeliness of this happening.

The NICU also has calm phases when the lights are dimmed, and the environment is one of peace.

Most children will rest on a warm open bed or in a covered incubator. These arrangements will help keep their bodies at the correct temperature.

Based on what clinical help the children need, there may be:

  • ventilators to help with breathing
  • machines to give estimated measures of liquids and meds to the children through tubes going into their veins
  • monitors attached to the children with cords to quantify pulse, breathing and the measure of oxygen in their blood
  • special cooling beds to help decrease cerebrum injury in infants who have had a troublesome birth.

The entirety of this innovation and hardware keeps the children comfortable, with a minimal requirement of additional care. Most equipment is built to inform the clinical staff on when the children would need additional care.

Other machines are also brought into the NICU when they’re required. These might help machines to:

  • take X-beams and ultrasounds
  • monitor cerebrum work
  • give children phototherapy, or treatment under lights (for jaundice)

The NICU is generally a quiet place, with medical staff and specialists unobtrusively caring for the infants and different experts coming in and out. Monitors will sound to caution the staff if an infant’s breathing or pulse is out of the typical range.

What should be done after the end of a child’s stay in the NICU?

At the point when you are taking your child home, you must be cautious. Ensure you consult with the specialist about the state of your little one and go through the protocols suggested by the team. Many premature infants are kept in an NICU as they need a certain additional level of care. At the point when you take your infant home, you need to follow the rules set by a specialist and continue to come in for regular check-ups.

It very well may be stressful to see your baby stay away from you, yet their time in a NICU will only help them later on. Premature children are delicate, so ensure that your child is kept in a NICU for as long as the specialist recommends.

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The neonatal Intensive Care unit, called the NICU, is a fundamental unit setup for newborn children. Premature infants and other babies brought into the world with disorders can frequently be kept in a NICU for extra care. At the point when a youngster has weakness, breathing issues, apnoea, hypoglycaemia, sepsis and other medical issues that need monitoring, you will be suggested to have your baby in a NICU for a couple of days.

Why keep infants in NICU?

On the off chance that you experience issues during birth, your newborn child will be recommended to be in NICU care for a few days. During this time, specialists and master medical attendants are consistently on rounds to keep a watch on the baby. Your infant will be taken care of, and all the appropriate treatments will be administered by experts.

About NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit)

What does the NICU comprise?

The NICU comprises High-frequency ventilators, bili lights, blood pressure monitors, cardiopulmonary monitor, central line, CPAP, endotracheal tube, gastrostomy tube, incubator, umbilical catheter, feeding tubes, and other similar equipment. It is equipped with all the necessities, and you won’t need to stress over your child’s health and well-being. You can leave it to the specialists to take all of this into consideration. There will be doctors, dieticians, medical caretakers, neonatologists, resident doctors, and a few different specialists consistently taking care of things.

What does a neonatal intensive care unit look like?

The first time you enter a neonatal emergency unit, it can feel overwhelming.

What will strike you the most is a series of taps or antibacterial hand gel distributors at the passage. You need to wash your hands with a disinfecting cleanser for a few minutes before you enter. Children are prone to infections, and appropriate hand-cleaning lowers the likeliness of this happening.

The NICU also has calm phases when the lights are dimmed, and the environment is one of peace.

Most children will rest on a warm open bed or in a covered incubator. These arrangements will help keep their bodies at the correct temperature.

Based on what clinical help the children need, there may be:

  • ventilators to help with breathing
  • machines to give estimated measures of liquids and meds to the children through tubes going into their veins
  • monitors attached to the children with cords to quantify pulse, breathing and the measure of oxygen in their blood
  • special cooling beds to help decrease cerebrum injury in infants who have had a troublesome birth.

The entirety of this innovation and hardware keeps the children comfortable, with a minimal requirement of additional care. Most equipment is built to inform the clinical staff on when the children would need additional care.

Other machines are also brought into the NICU when they’re required. These might help machines to:

  • take X-beams and ultrasounds
  • monitor cerebrum work
  • give children phototherapy, or treatment under lights (for jaundice)

The NICU is generally a quiet place, with medical staff and specialists unobtrusively caring for the infants and different experts coming in and out. Monitors will sound to caution the staff if an infant’s breathing or pulse is out of the typical range.

What should be done after the end of a child’s stay in the NICU?

At the point when you are taking your child home, you must be cautious. Ensure you consult with the specialist about the state of your little one and go through the protocols suggested by the team. Many premature infants are kept in an NICU as they need a certain additional level of care. At the point when you take your infant home, you need to follow the rules set by a specialist and continue to come in for regular check-ups.

It very well may be stressful to see your baby stay away from you, yet their time in a NICU will only help them later on. Premature children are delicate, so ensure that your child is kept in a NICU for as long as the specialist recommends.

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5 things to know about a NICU

5 things to know about a NICU

July 29, 2021

The neonatal Intensive Care unit, called the NICU, is a fundamental ...

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            [blog_title] => What Is Genetic Newborn Screening Test and Who Can Opt for It?
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A newborn screening (NBS) test is done to find out different genetic, developmental, and metabolic conditions in the newborn. With a genetic newborn screening test, a doctor can identify genetic disorders in a newborn, and rectify or control the condition by taking proper steps before the symptoms develop. The test helps both the parents and doctors to diagnose the condition, and take timely measurements to manage, intervene or treat the disease. This will help the baby lead a healthy and happy life.

Is It Necessary to Take Genetic Newborn Screen Tests for All Newborns?

The newborn genetic screening test is necessary for every newborn baby for genetic diseases may not be apparent when a baby is born. Hence, medical science suggests all babies be screened at birth whether their physical appearance is healthy or not.

For instance, a child, who has PKU, will not show any unhealthy signs since the condition may not manifest any symptoms. Nevertheless, a baby with this condition cannot metabolize phenylalanine, which is present in milk and sweeteners, and the accumulation of this substance in the blood may lead to brain damage. More than 70 to 80 per cent of any medical conditions in a baby can be managed when diagnosed immediately after birth, but some genetic health conditions such as sickle cell anaemia cannot be cured completely. However, early detection can save the life of the baby; for this reason, every baby must be screened for genetic disorders.

How Is Genetic Newborn Screening Test Conducted?

The newborn screening test is conducted for every baby within 24-48 hours of the birth. The screening test is performed until the time the baby is 13 days old. It is also possible to find the disorders until the age of 2 through genetic screening. However, it is advisable to have the screening as early as possible.

The blood sample of the baby is collected from the heel of the baby by pricking, and the sample is sent to a laboratory for a biochemical test for screening of several inherited conditions.  The inherited health conditions or genetic disorders are generally transferred to the baby through genes or chromosomes. Normally, the newborn screening tests involve:

  • Blood tests: The blood test is done to find out the health conditions such as phenylketonuria (PKU), methylmalonic acidemia, maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), tyrosinemia, citrullinemia, medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency, and sickle cell anaemia. Furthermore, a blood test is also performed to diagnose hormone problems, haemoglobin issues and other diseases.

Newborn screening

What Is Genetic Disorder?

A human body consists of millions of cells and each cell contains 46 chromosomes or matching pairs of 23 chromosomes, where half of the pairs of 23 chromosomes come from the baby’s father and the other 23 chromosomes from the mother. These chromosomes are responsible for the physical, mental, and biological characteristics of an individual. The genetic material gives instructions to the body for growth and development. When some detrimental changes occur in the DNA, it is termed a genetic disorder. It changes the way the child develops and affects the mental and physical growth and well-being of the child.

The genetic disorder may either be inherited from the parents or may happen for the first time. However, in both cases, it will lead to health problems such as brain damage, physical disability, mental retardation, and so on.

Benefits of Genetic Newborn Screening?

By performing the screening test on the newborns, any observable symptoms are identified and treated.  This test is just diagnostic testing and the follow-up tests are suggested if any condition exists in the baby. The screening test also detects the inborn errors of metabolism owing to natural chemicals produced in the body.

What Kind of Disorders Can Be Identified Through New-Born Screening?

With the screening tests, more than 44 metabolic disorders in newborns can be diagnosed by collecting blood samples. Many of the disorders are caused by chemical imbalances inherited from the parents. Such chemical imbalance will have a strong effect on the newborn within a few days or weeks. Parents who have no previous history and have healthy children without any disorder may have babies born with these disorders. The children born with such disorders may behave completely normally, and appear to be healthy.

Furthermore, the mortality rate of such children is 5 to 10 out of 1000 children, even in developed countries. It is nearly 10 times more than that of the developed countries in India.  The newborn screening test helps detect the disorders and reduce the symptoms through proper treatment, healthy diet and medication.

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A newborn screening (NBS) test is done to find out different genetic, developmental, and metabolic conditions in the newborn. With a genetic newborn screening test, a doctor can identify genetic disorders in a newborn, and rectify or control the condition by taking proper steps before the symptoms develop. The test helps both the parents and doctors to diagnose the condition, and take timely measurements to manage, intervene or treat the disease. This will help the baby lead a healthy and happy life.

Is It Necessary to Take Genetic Newborn Screen Tests for All Newborns?

The newborn genetic screening test is necessary for every newborn baby for genetic diseases may not be apparent when a baby is born. Hence, medical science suggests all babies be screened at birth whether their physical appearance is healthy or not.

For instance, a child, who has PKU, will not show any unhealthy signs since the condition may not manifest any symptoms. Nevertheless, a baby with this condition cannot metabolize phenylalanine, which is present in milk and sweeteners, and the accumulation of this substance in the blood may lead to brain damage. More than 70 to 80 per cent of any medical conditions in a baby can be managed when diagnosed immediately after birth, but some genetic health conditions such as sickle cell anaemia cannot be cured completely. However, early detection can save the life of the baby; for this reason, every baby must be screened for genetic disorders.

How Is Genetic Newborn Screening Test Conducted?

The newborn screening test is conducted for every baby within 24-48 hours of the birth. The screening test is performed until the time the baby is 13 days old. It is also possible to find the disorders until the age of 2 through genetic screening. However, it is advisable to have the screening as early as possible.

The blood sample of the baby is collected from the heel of the baby by pricking, and the sample is sent to a laboratory for a biochemical test for screening of several inherited conditions.  The inherited health conditions or genetic disorders are generally transferred to the baby through genes or chromosomes. Normally, the newborn screening tests involve:

  • Blood tests: The blood test is done to find out the health conditions such as phenylketonuria (PKU), methylmalonic acidemia, maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), tyrosinemia, citrullinemia, medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency, and sickle cell anaemia. Furthermore, a blood test is also performed to diagnose hormone problems, haemoglobin issues and other diseases.

Newborn screening

What Is Genetic Disorder?

A human body consists of millions of cells and each cell contains 46 chromosomes or matching pairs of 23 chromosomes, where half of the pairs of 23 chromosomes come from the baby’s father and the other 23 chromosomes from the mother. These chromosomes are responsible for the physical, mental, and biological characteristics of an individual. The genetic material gives instructions to the body for growth and development. When some detrimental changes occur in the DNA, it is termed a genetic disorder. It changes the way the child develops and affects the mental and physical growth and well-being of the child.

The genetic disorder may either be inherited from the parents or may happen for the first time. However, in both cases, it will lead to health problems such as brain damage, physical disability, mental retardation, and so on.

Benefits of Genetic Newborn Screening?

By performing the screening test on the newborns, any observable symptoms are identified and treated.  This test is just diagnostic testing and the follow-up tests are suggested if any condition exists in the baby. The screening test also detects the inborn errors of metabolism owing to natural chemicals produced in the body.

What Kind of Disorders Can Be Identified Through New-Born Screening?

With the screening tests, more than 44 metabolic disorders in newborns can be diagnosed by collecting blood samples. Many of the disorders are caused by chemical imbalances inherited from the parents. Such chemical imbalance will have a strong effect on the newborn within a few days or weeks. Parents who have no previous history and have healthy children without any disorder may have babies born with these disorders. The children born with such disorders may behave completely normally, and appear to be healthy.

Furthermore, the mortality rate of such children is 5 to 10 out of 1000 children, even in developed countries. It is nearly 10 times more than that of the developed countries in India.  The newborn screening test helps detect the disorders and reduce the symptoms through proper treatment, healthy diet and medication.

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Neonatal screening or Newborn Screening is the process of screening neonates during the first days of birth to identify inborn defects, metabolism errors and disorders, which can affect a baby’s normal growth and development. Though several disorders and errors may not be apparent during a baby’s birth, they may cause permanent mental, tactile, neurological and physical damage in the child.

When is Newborn Screening Done?

The screening test will begin within 48 hours of the birth of the baby, and until the baby is in the hospital. One or two weeks after the baby’s birth, the hospital may advise the parent to take the baby for a blood test to avoid serious irreversible health conditions. Furthermore, later than the specified time, any infant positive for any health issues will be suggested to undergo relevant screening tests at any time.

With the help of newborn screening machines, tests and instruments, early detection of any disease and prompt intervention to such disease or illness are possible. When a baby is born, newborn screen tests are done to ensure that the baby is free from any kind of disorders, which are not apparent at birth.

How Newborn Screening Is Carried Out?

Generally, the basic newborn screening tests involve the following methods:

  • Blood tests
  • Hearing test
  • Critical Congenital Heart Disease or CCHD screening

Newborn Screening

Blood Test: The newborn screening test starts with the heel test, which is otherwise known as the blood test, to identify any disorders in newborn babies. This is the first test done in hospitals, where the baby’s heel is pricked, and blood samples are taken. They are sent to laboratories to know if any health conditions are present in the baby as they may affect the overall growth and development of the child.   

The blood sample is tested to find out some of the common disorders such as:

Congenital Hypothyroidism: The blood collected from the baby’s feet is tested for congenital hypothyroidism or low thyroid activity. This condition is found in one out of every 4,000 babies, and if it is not detected and treated promptly after birth, it can lead to growth failure, mental retardation, hearing loss and neurologic abnormalities. Babies with congenital hypothyroidism can be rectified by providing thyroid hormones orally from the first week of birth and up to 4 to 7 years of age.

Phenylketonuria (PKU): Phenylalanine hydroxylase is an enzyme that is necessary to process phenylalanine, which is an amino acid in the diet. Babies with phenylketonuria lack this enzyme and therefore, cannot process phenylalanine, which accumulates in the blood causing brain damage.  If dietary treatment is given in the first few weeks of the baby’s birth, you can prevent this condition.

Galactosemia: When a newborn baby lacks an enzyme called galactosemia, the baby cannot process sugar and galactose. This will result in vomiting, progressive liver issues, mental retardation, and E. coli bloodstream infection resulting in death. When detected early, the exclusion of galactose (avoiding milk and milk products) from the infant’s food will help recover from it gradually.

Sickle Cell Disease: One of the significant genetic diseases, sickle cell disease in babies should be diagnosed in the infant stage. The babies with this condition, suffer organ damage, have strokes and experience sever pain for the red blood cells become sickle-shaped and get stuck in the blood vessels. Proper treatment early in the life of the baby can prevent or reduce this problem.

The sickle cell test is also incorporated with other screen tests such as thalassemia, hemoglobin E, and other disorders in the blood.

Hearing Test: The newborn screening test involves the hearing test, which helps to know any defects or loss in the hearing system. The tests deployed to check hearing abilities are the otoacoustic emissions test and the auditory brain stem response test.

CCHD Screening: This test is done to check the possibility of critical congenital heart disease in newborns. A healthcare practitioner examines the baby with the help of an “oximeter”, which is an instrument used to measure the level of oxygen in the blood. If the oxygen level is low in the baby, then it can be of structural or behavioral defect in the heart.

When Can You Expect the Results Ready?

You get the results for the newborn screening after 10days of the test is done. The blood test results will take a week. If the baby is normal, it will be mentioned in the child’s health report. If the test shows positive for any condition, the parents will be informed and called for a discussion, and more tests are prescribed for complete analysis of the relevant condition to rule out or to confirm the disease. If any diagnosis is verified, the child will be referred to a specialist for more testing, and it is important to start treatment for any abnormalities immediately.

An effective and efficient newborn screening helps diagnose any disorders, get complete health status of the newborn and eliminate any health problems.

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Neonatal screening or Newborn Screening is the process of screening neonates during the first days of birth to identify inborn defects, metabolism errors and disorders, which can affect a baby’s normal growth and development. Though several disorders and errors may not be apparent during a baby’s birth, they may cause permanent mental, tactile, neurological and physical damage in the child.

When is Newborn Screening Done?

The screening test will begin within 48 hours of the birth of the baby, and until the baby is in the hospital. One or two weeks after the baby’s birth, the hospital may advise the parent to take the baby for a blood test to avoid serious irreversible health conditions. Furthermore, later than the specified time, any infant positive for any health issues will be suggested to undergo relevant screening tests at any time.

With the help of newborn screening machines, tests and instruments, early detection of any disease and prompt intervention to such disease or illness are possible. When a baby is born, newborn screen tests are done to ensure that the baby is free from any kind of disorders, which are not apparent at birth.

How Newborn Screening Is Carried Out?

Generally, the basic newborn screening tests involve the following methods:

  • Blood tests
  • Hearing test
  • Critical Congenital Heart Disease or CCHD screening

Newborn Screening

Blood Test: The newborn screening test starts with the heel test, which is otherwise known as the blood test, to identify any disorders in newborn babies. This is the first test done in hospitals, where the baby’s heel is pricked, and blood samples are taken. They are sent to laboratories to know if any health conditions are present in the baby as they may affect the overall growth and development of the child.   

The blood sample is tested to find out some of the common disorders such as:

Congenital Hypothyroidism: The blood collected from the baby’s feet is tested for congenital hypothyroidism or low thyroid activity. This condition is found in one out of every 4,000 babies, and if it is not detected and treated promptly after birth, it can lead to growth failure, mental retardation, hearing loss and neurologic abnormalities. Babies with congenital hypothyroidism can be rectified by providing thyroid hormones orally from the first week of birth and up to 4 to 7 years of age.

Phenylketonuria (PKU): Phenylalanine hydroxylase is an enzyme that is necessary to process phenylalanine, which is an amino acid in the diet. Babies with phenylketonuria lack this enzyme and therefore, cannot process phenylalanine, which accumulates in the blood causing brain damage.  If dietary treatment is given in the first few weeks of the baby’s birth, you can prevent this condition.

Galactosemia: When a newborn baby lacks an enzyme called galactosemia, the baby cannot process sugar and galactose. This will result in vomiting, progressive liver issues, mental retardation, and E. coli bloodstream infection resulting in death. When detected early, the exclusion of galactose (avoiding milk and milk products) from the infant’s food will help recover from it gradually.

Sickle Cell Disease: One of the significant genetic diseases, sickle cell disease in babies should be diagnosed in the infant stage. The babies with this condition, suffer organ damage, have strokes and experience sever pain for the red blood cells become sickle-shaped and get stuck in the blood vessels. Proper treatment early in the life of the baby can prevent or reduce this problem.

The sickle cell test is also incorporated with other screen tests such as thalassemia, hemoglobin E, and other disorders in the blood.

Hearing Test: The newborn screening test involves the hearing test, which helps to know any defects or loss in the hearing system. The tests deployed to check hearing abilities are the otoacoustic emissions test and the auditory brain stem response test.

CCHD Screening: This test is done to check the possibility of critical congenital heart disease in newborns. A healthcare practitioner examines the baby with the help of an “oximeter”, which is an instrument used to measure the level of oxygen in the blood. If the oxygen level is low in the baby, then it can be of structural or behavioral defect in the heart.

When Can You Expect the Results Ready?

You get the results for the newborn screening after 10days of the test is done. The blood test results will take a week. If the baby is normal, it will be mentioned in the child’s health report. If the test shows positive for any condition, the parents will be informed and called for a discussion, and more tests are prescribed for complete analysis of the relevant condition to rule out or to confirm the disease. If any diagnosis is verified, the child will be referred to a specialist for more testing, and it is important to start treatment for any abnormalities immediately.

An effective and efficient newborn screening helps diagnose any disorders, get complete health status of the newborn and eliminate any health problems.

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What Happens During a Newborn’s Screening a Complete Walk-Through?

What Happens During a Newborn’s Screening a Complete Walk-Through?

July 12, 2021

Neonatal screening or Newborn Screening is the process of screening ...

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            [blog_title] => All You Need to Know About Immunization
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Do babies get sick if they aren’t immunized? There are several diseases, which are vaccine-prevented, and not commonly found. Parents are worried about their children getting a shot of the vaccine for they want to know if it is safe. Millions of children across the world are immunized, yet parents doubt the safety of vaccines because of the rumours that they can cause health problems.

What Is Immunization?

Pathogens, which cause infectious diseases, are most often tracked and got rid of by the immune system in the human body. Though the system is highly efficient in dealing with microorganisms, some facultative or obligate pathogens overwhelm the immune system and exert a range of deleterious effects on the body.  They cause serious illness, and the body fails to recognize these pathogens. With immunization, you can enable the immune system to keep out the pathogens. Vaccinations help protect children from becoming sick, and they are a part of preventive action for parents to save their children from various diseases.

Why Are Immunizations Essential for Children?

Vaccinations can prevent diseases in children. Several diseases are prevented by vaccination. Some of them are eradicated, but they still exist in some countries, and there is a danger that they may come back through travellers who go around visiting places. A newborn baby should be protected from various diseases, which are common everywhere. Through immunization, you can keep those diseases away.

The immune system in children, which comprises organs, glands, cells and fluids located all over their body, recognizes any foreign invaders or antigens like germs and fights them by producing proteins called antibodies.

If a child is sick because of a particular antigen, say measles, his or her body’s immune system will fight it by producing antibodies. The child becomes sick because the immune system takes time to recognize the antigen, produce the antibodies and fight the disease. Nevertheless, the immune system could identify the same antigen if it invades the body again, and reacts to it quickly by producing the antibodies and getting rid of it without causing the disease next time.

Immunization helps the child’s body recognize a disease, as well as primes the immune cells to remember the antigens that cause the disease. It also stimulates the immune system to make antibodies to fight the antigens. Vaccines act by exposing the human body to a safe version of a disease, which may be:

  • An inactivated form of antigen
  • Sugar or protein from the composition of a pathogen
  • A weakened pathogen
  • A toxoid or a changed form of toxin from a pathogen

The body creates an adaptive immune response with the vaccine and becomes equipped to fight the actual infection. Vaccines, which are administered in injections, consist of antigen and adjuvant, where the first one is for the body to make out the disease, while the second is to send a signal to the immune system to respond to the disease strongly and develop immunity.

What Diseases Can Immunizations Prevent?

Vaccinations are offered for the following diseases, and they are administered at different time schedules after the birth of a baby.

  • Diphtheria, Tetanus and Whooping Cough: The vaccines for diphtheria, tetanus and whooping cough are administered to babies, children below 7 years and older children. Babies and children are given 4 shots of (DTaP), and they are in the 2nd month, 4th month, 6th month and between 16-18 months. After this, these vaccines are given after every 10 years.
  • Hepatitis B: It is a liver infection, which is caused by hepatitis B virus. Vaccination prevents this disease, and children are given 3 shots of hepatitis B at birth, in 1-2 months and 6-18 months. The vaccine is safe, except for the soreness at the place injected.
  • Hepatitis A: This disease is caused due to the damaged or inflamed liver. Heavy medications, toxins and some medical conditions can cause hepatitis A. Children should be vaccinated in 12 to 23 months, and the second dose in between 2 – 18 years.
  • Rotavirus (RV): Rotavirus can cause severe diarrhoea, fever, abdominal pain and vomiting. Babies and children need immunizations to protect them from this. The first dose is given in the 2nd month, the second in the 4th month and the third in the 6th
  • Haemophilus influenza Type B: This causes severe illness, as well as death in children. To prevent it, all children younger than 5 years old should be given multiple shots of vaccine, where the first shot should be in the 2nd month, the second at the 4th month, the third at the 6th month and the fourth between 12 and 15 months.
  • Measles, Mumps and Rubella (MMR): Children are administered the MMR vaccine in two doses, with the first one between 12 and 15 months after birth and the second between 4 and 6 years of age.

The other immunizations for children include inactivated polio vaccine, influenza, human papillomavirus and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

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Do babies get sick if they aren’t immunized? There are several diseases, which are vaccine-prevented, and not commonly found. Parents are worried about their children getting a shot of the vaccine for they want to know if it is safe. Millions of children across the world are immunized, yet parents doubt the safety of vaccines because of the rumours that they can cause health problems.

What Is Immunization?

Pathogens, which cause infectious diseases, are most often tracked and got rid of by the immune system in the human body. Though the system is highly efficient in dealing with microorganisms, some facultative or obligate pathogens overwhelm the immune system and exert a range of deleterious effects on the body.  They cause serious illness, and the body fails to recognize these pathogens. With immunization, you can enable the immune system to keep out the pathogens. Vaccinations help protect children from becoming sick, and they are a part of preventive action for parents to save their children from various diseases.

Why Are Immunizations Essential for Children?

Vaccinations can prevent diseases in children. Several diseases are prevented by vaccination. Some of them are eradicated, but they still exist in some countries, and there is a danger that they may come back through travellers who go around visiting places. A newborn baby should be protected from various diseases, which are common everywhere. Through immunization, you can keep those diseases away.

The immune system in children, which comprises organs, glands, cells and fluids located all over their body, recognizes any foreign invaders or antigens like germs and fights them by producing proteins called antibodies.

If a child is sick because of a particular antigen, say measles, his or her body’s immune system will fight it by producing antibodies. The child becomes sick because the immune system takes time to recognize the antigen, produce the antibodies and fight the disease. Nevertheless, the immune system could identify the same antigen if it invades the body again, and reacts to it quickly by producing the antibodies and getting rid of it without causing the disease next time.

Immunization helps the child’s body recognize a disease, as well as primes the immune cells to remember the antigens that cause the disease. It also stimulates the immune system to make antibodies to fight the antigens. Vaccines act by exposing the human body to a safe version of a disease, which may be:

  • An inactivated form of antigen
  • Sugar or protein from the composition of a pathogen
  • A weakened pathogen
  • A toxoid or a changed form of toxin from a pathogen

The body creates an adaptive immune response with the vaccine and becomes equipped to fight the actual infection. Vaccines, which are administered in injections, consist of antigen and adjuvant, where the first one is for the body to make out the disease, while the second is to send a signal to the immune system to respond to the disease strongly and develop immunity.

What Diseases Can Immunizations Prevent?

Vaccinations are offered for the following diseases, and they are administered at different time schedules after the birth of a baby.

  • Diphtheria, Tetanus and Whooping Cough: The vaccines for diphtheria, tetanus and whooping cough are administered to babies, children below 7 years and older children. Babies and children are given 4 shots of (DTaP), and they are in the 2nd month, 4th month, 6th month and between 16-18 months. After this, these vaccines are given after every 10 years.
  • Hepatitis B: It is a liver infection, which is caused by hepatitis B virus. Vaccination prevents this disease, and children are given 3 shots of hepatitis B at birth, in 1-2 months and 6-18 months. The vaccine is safe, except for the soreness at the place injected.
  • Hepatitis A: This disease is caused due to the damaged or inflamed liver. Heavy medications, toxins and some medical conditions can cause hepatitis A. Children should be vaccinated in 12 to 23 months, and the second dose in between 2 – 18 years.
  • Rotavirus (RV): Rotavirus can cause severe diarrhoea, fever, abdominal pain and vomiting. Babies and children need immunizations to protect them from this. The first dose is given in the 2nd month, the second in the 4th month and the third in the 6th
  • Haemophilus influenza Type B: This causes severe illness, as well as death in children. To prevent it, all children younger than 5 years old should be given multiple shots of vaccine, where the first shot should be in the 2nd month, the second at the 4th month, the third at the 6th month and the fourth between 12 and 15 months.
  • Measles, Mumps and Rubella (MMR): Children are administered the MMR vaccine in two doses, with the first one between 12 and 15 months after birth and the second between 4 and 6 years of age.

The other immunizations for children include inactivated polio vaccine, influenza, human papillomavirus and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

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All You Need to Know About Immunization

All You Need to Know About Immunization

June 21, 2021

Do babies get sick if they aren’t immunized? There are several...

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Pediatricians are specialists who work with children, dealing with their physical, behavioural, and emotional health problems. They are trained to analyse and treat diseases of the youth, from minor medical issues to genuine sicknesses.

Children don’t come with a manual, and they don’t work on any other individual’s timetable. It’s what makes looking for a pediatrician a particularly essential assignment. Your pediatrician is the primary line of fortified care for your kid – from the initial days of their life to their youthful adulthood.

Pediatric Surgeon

Questions to ask a Pediatric Surgeon

Pediatricians deal with your child in the early stages of childhood and stay with them till the beginning of adulthood. From ear diseases and colic issues to class physicals and sports wounds, without excluding skin breakouts and contaminations from piercings, your pediatrician will maintain a steady presence in your kid’s life. This is the reason you should be carefully choosing your pediatric surgeon. The ideal approach to decide on a suitable pediatrician is to plan everything and be prepared with the right questions. When meeting with a pediatrician, here are a couple of inquiries to consider:

1) When is the pediatrician available?

Pediatricians are available from 9 am till 7 pm

2) Are there any days of the week when the visiting hours may be extended?

No

3) Are there extra evening or Saturday hours?

Evening consultations are available till 7:00 pm

4) How does the paediatrician’s office handle calls?

All the calls are routed through a centralised call centre 18605004424

5) Does the pediatrician acknowledge and answer questions using email?

Yes, patients can reach out to doctors through the Apollo cradle App- Chat option by connecting with the care manager first. Download App http://onelink.to/jz439e

6) Could I see the doctor after hours?

No

7) Is the staff cooperative?

Staff at all Apollo units are very patient-friendly and supportive. They will answer all your queries with patience if any.

8) How close is the facility to my home (for situations of emergency)?

Please check the locations available on the Website

9) What is the normal standby time at the centre?

9 am to 7 pm

10) Where do the specialist have their clinics or offices located? Where do they admit patients in crisis?

Apollo Cradle & Children’s Hospitals

11) Will the specialist (or another doctor in the training) see my new infant in the hospital?

yes

How Does Your Paediatrician Respond?

A pediatrician will see your child from birth up to the age of 2 and once per year from the age of 2 to 5 for regular check-ups. After the age of 5, your pediatric surgeon will probably be treating your kid each year for annual check-ups. They’re ideally the main individual to call whenever your kid is not well.

To deal with your child, your pediatrician will:

  • Conduct actual tests
  • Give your kid regular vaccinations
  • Make sure your child showcases achievements in development, conduct, and abilities
  • Diagnose and treat your child’s diseases, contaminations, wounds, and other medical conditions
  • Give you information on your kid’s well-being, security, nourishment, and wellness needs
  • Answer your inquiries regarding your little one’s development
  • Refer you to specialists if they think your child needs the utmost care
  • They have exceptionally trained in looking after a kids’ wellbeing.
  • They specialise in kids’ health during their training and have good experience with perceiving and treating child sicknesses.

If your kid was conceived early or has a medical issue that requires close observation, a pediatrician will offer expert care.

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Pediatricians are specialists who work with children, dealing with their physical, behavioural, and emotional health problems. They are trained to analyse and treat diseases of the youth, from minor medical issues to genuine sicknesses.

Children don’t come with a manual, and they don’t work on any other individual’s timetable. It’s what makes looking for a pediatrician a particularly essential assignment. Your pediatrician is the primary line of fortified care for your kid – from the initial days of their life to their youthful adulthood.

Pediatric Surgeon

Questions to ask a Pediatric Surgeon

Pediatricians deal with your child in the early stages of childhood and stay with them till the beginning of adulthood. From ear diseases and colic issues to class physicals and sports wounds, without excluding skin breakouts and contaminations from piercings, your pediatrician will maintain a steady presence in your kid’s life. This is the reason you should be carefully choosing your pediatric surgeon. The ideal approach to decide on a suitable pediatrician is to plan everything and be prepared with the right questions. When meeting with a pediatrician, here are a couple of inquiries to consider:

1) When is the pediatrician available?

Pediatricians are available from 9 am till 7 pm

2) Are there any days of the week when the visiting hours may be extended?

No

3) Are there extra evening or Saturday hours?

Evening consultations are available till 7:00 pm

4) How does the paediatrician’s office handle calls?

All the calls are routed through a centralised call centre 18605004424

5) Does the pediatrician acknowledge and answer questions using email?

Yes, patients can reach out to doctors through the Apollo cradle App- Chat option by connecting with the care manager first. Download App http://onelink.to/jz439e

6) Could I see the doctor after hours?

No

7) Is the staff cooperative?

Staff at all Apollo units are very patient-friendly and supportive. They will answer all your queries with patience if any.

8) How close is the facility to my home (for situations of emergency)?

Please check the locations available on the Website

9) What is the normal standby time at the centre?

9 am to 7 pm

10) Where do the specialist have their clinics or offices located? Where do they admit patients in crisis?

Apollo Cradle & Children’s Hospitals

11) Will the specialist (or another doctor in the training) see my new infant in the hospital?

yes

How Does Your Paediatrician Respond?

A pediatrician will see your child from birth up to the age of 2 and once per year from the age of 2 to 5 for regular check-ups. After the age of 5, your pediatric surgeon will probably be treating your kid each year for annual check-ups. They’re ideally the main individual to call whenever your kid is not well.

To deal with your child, your pediatrician will:

  • Conduct actual tests
  • Give your kid regular vaccinations
  • Make sure your child showcases achievements in development, conduct, and abilities
  • Diagnose and treat your child’s diseases, contaminations, wounds, and other medical conditions
  • Give you information on your kid’s well-being, security, nourishment, and wellness needs
  • Answer your inquiries regarding your little one’s development
  • Refer you to specialists if they think your child needs the utmost care
  • They have exceptionally trained in looking after a kids’ wellbeing.
  • They specialise in kids’ health during their training and have good experience with perceiving and treating child sicknesses.

If your kid was conceived early or has a medical issue that requires close observation, a pediatrician will offer expert care.

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Questions You Must Ask Your Pediatrician

Questions You Must Ask Your Pediatrician

June 18, 2021

Pediatricians are specialists who work with children, dealing with t...

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            [blog_title] => All you need to know about Childhood Cancers
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Each child deserves to be blessed with good health and a long life. Nonetheless, it is painful and heart-breaking when children have to deal with illnesses or disorders that they were not responsible for creating. One such ailment is Cancer. 

Childhood Cancers are rare, but cannot be ignored, as they can even be fatal. The symptoms are different from those related to adult cancers, but it is important to identify them correctly. 

Causes of Childhood Cancers: 

Different cancers arise from different risk factors: 

  • LIFESTYLE: 

In children, an unchecked lifestyle could impact them after many years eg. being overweight, lack of proper exercise, careless eating habits and so on. 

  • ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS:  

Exposure to radiation can trigger many types of childhood cancers. Sometimes being passive smokers (if parents are chain smokers), they become victims of disease.   

  • CHANGES IN GENES:  

Unknowingly, certain changes in the DNA of cells can change them into becoming cancer cells. These DNA changes are inherited from either parent, which sometimes increase the risk of certain types of cancer. 

  • DEVELOPMENT IN THE WOMB:  

In some rare cases, a child may develop cancerous tissues while in the womb. While in the womb, these cells remain dormant. They become active after a child might turn 3 or 4 years old, and develop into cancerous tumors. 

  • EXPOSURE TO INFECTIONS:  

Infections, in unusual circumstances, can cause cancers. 

  • EXPOSURE TO RADIATION AND CHEMOTHERAPY:  

Even after being completely cured of one type of cancer, children who have undergone chemotherapy and radiation, might sometimes be at a risk for developing another kind, in later years. This is only a likelihood, but precautions and regular checks can help monitor a child’s health diligently, and ensure timely intervention. 

Symptoms of Childhood cancer: 

Diagnosis is often delayed when people are not alert about noticing symptoms, and seeking help on time.  

While children have normal ups and downs in their health while growing up, if you notice more than one of these, please meet your paediatrician immediately, and take necessary steps. 

– Unusual lump in or swelling in the abdomen, neck, chest, pelvis or armpits

– Pain or discomfort in those areas.

– Easily fatigued or lacking energy.

– Gets bruised and bleeds quickly.

– Limping without reason.

– Behaving unusually – crying, screaming, sleeping for long hours or slow growth.

– Feverish for many days at a stretch, and unwell often.

– Vision is affected. 

– Skin looks pale and dull.

– Infections of ear, nose, throat or chest. 

Childhood cancers are for children younger than 15 years of age. After accidents, cancer is the second leading cause of death in children between the ages of 1 and 1 

Common Cancers in Children:

  • Leukemia—the deadliest pediatric cancer.
  • Brain and spinal cord tumors
  • Neuroblastoma
  • Wilms tumor of the kidney
  • Lymphoma ( Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin )
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma
  • Retinoblastoma
  • Bone cancer 

Test for Diagnosing Childhood Cancer:

    • BLOOD TESTS:This helps identify the different kinds of cells in the child’s blood. If certain cells are high or low, it will help to detect the types of cancer.
    • BIOPSY:  In the case of brain cancer, a biopsy is the only option to diagnose it. For other cancers, there are different tests to help detect anything uncommon. The type of biopsy depends on the location of the tumour.
    • BONE MARROW ASPIRATION AND BIOPSY: These tests are both done to scan and study the bone marrow—the fatty tissue found inside the larger bones. The marrow samples are examined and then analysed.
    • There are various tests like, lumbar puncture, ultrasound, compound tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, position imaging tomography and scans or radioisotope, which help to accurately detect and diagnose the type of ailment.

Treatments of Childhood Cancers:

More than 70% of the types of this ailment are curable through advanced

Treatments include:

CHEMOTHERAPY

RADIATION

SURGERY

HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION

GENE THERAPY

MULTIMODAL THERAPY 

Foods, Diet and Nutrition: 

Food can be a major contributor to a child’s wellness before, during and after the treatment. With the help of a trusted nutritionist, you can put together a diet plan that helps strengthen a child’s immune system while steering clear of foods that are difficult to digest. It also acts as a mood booster, keeping a child cheerful and enthusiastic.

 

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Each child deserves to be blessed with good health and a long life. Nonetheless, it is painful and heart-breaking when children have to deal with illnesses or disorders that they were not responsible for creating. One such ailment is Cancer. 

Childhood Cancers are rare, but cannot be ignored, as they can even be fatal. The symptoms are different from those related to adult cancers, but it is important to identify them correctly. 

Causes of Childhood Cancers: 

Different cancers arise from different risk factors: 

  • LIFESTYLE: 

In children, an unchecked lifestyle could impact them after many years eg. being overweight, lack of proper exercise, careless eating habits and so on. 

  • ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS:  

Exposure to radiation can trigger many types of childhood cancers. Sometimes being passive smokers (if parents are chain smokers), they become victims of disease.   

  • CHANGES IN GENES:  

Unknowingly, certain changes in the DNA of cells can change them into becoming cancer cells. These DNA changes are inherited from either parent, which sometimes increase the risk of certain types of cancer. 

  • DEVELOPMENT IN THE WOMB:  

In some rare cases, a child may develop cancerous tissues while in the womb. While in the womb, these cells remain dormant. They become active after a child might turn 3 or 4 years old, and develop into cancerous tumors. 

  • EXPOSURE TO INFECTIONS:  

Infections, in unusual circumstances, can cause cancers. 

  • EXPOSURE TO RADIATION AND CHEMOTHERAPY:  

Even after being completely cured of one type of cancer, children who have undergone chemotherapy and radiation, might sometimes be at a risk for developing another kind, in later years. This is only a likelihood, but precautions and regular checks can help monitor a child’s health diligently, and ensure timely intervention. 

Symptoms of Childhood cancer: 

Diagnosis is often delayed when people are not alert about noticing symptoms, and seeking help on time.  

While children have normal ups and downs in their health while growing up, if you notice more than one of these, please meet your paediatrician immediately, and take necessary steps. 

– Unusual lump in or swelling in the abdomen, neck, chest, pelvis or armpits

– Pain or discomfort in those areas.

– Easily fatigued or lacking energy.

– Gets bruised and bleeds quickly.

– Limping without reason.

– Behaving unusually – crying, screaming, sleeping for long hours or slow growth.

– Feverish for many days at a stretch, and unwell often.

– Vision is affected. 

– Skin looks pale and dull.

– Infections of ear, nose, throat or chest. 

Childhood cancers are for children younger than 15 years of age. After accidents, cancer is the second leading cause of death in children between the ages of 1 and 1 

Common Cancers in Children:

  • Leukemia—the deadliest pediatric cancer.
  • Brain and spinal cord tumors
  • Neuroblastoma
  • Wilms tumor of the kidney
  • Lymphoma ( Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin )
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma
  • Retinoblastoma
  • Bone cancer 

Test for Diagnosing Childhood Cancer:

    • BLOOD TESTS:This helps identify the different kinds of cells in the child’s blood. If certain cells are high or low, it will help to detect the types of cancer.
    • BIOPSY:  In the case of brain cancer, a biopsy is the only option to diagnose it. For other cancers, there are different tests to help detect anything uncommon. The type of biopsy depends on the location of the tumour.
    • BONE MARROW ASPIRATION AND BIOPSY: These tests are both done to scan and study the bone marrow—the fatty tissue found inside the larger bones. The marrow samples are examined and then analysed.
    • There are various tests like, lumbar puncture, ultrasound, compound tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, position imaging tomography and scans or radioisotope, which help to accurately detect and diagnose the type of ailment.

Treatments of Childhood Cancers:

More than 70% of the types of this ailment are curable through advanced

Treatments include:

CHEMOTHERAPY

RADIATION

SURGERY

HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION

GENE THERAPY

MULTIMODAL THERAPY 

Foods, Diet and Nutrition: 

Food can be a major contributor to a child’s wellness before, during and after the treatment. With the help of a trusted nutritionist, you can put together a diet plan that helps strengthen a child’s immune system while steering clear of foods that are difficult to digest. It also acts as a mood booster, keeping a child cheerful and enthusiastic.

 

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All you need to know about Childhood Cancers

All you need to know about Childhood Cancers

January 30, 2021

Each child deserves to be blessed with go...

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            [blog_title] => Benefits of immunizing your child
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Immunisation is one of the most important and beneficial advances made by medical science during the 20th century, especially in the field of paediatrics, and is responsible for saving thousands of children from death due to diseases like polio, measles and diphtheria. Read here about benefits of immunizing your child.

Immunisation programs primarily aim to eliminate, contain or control infectious diseases which may affect the health and life of your just born baby, ensuring that he’s healthy and happy. Why should you vaccinate your baby, you ask? Here are six essential benefits of immunisation that will increase the quality of life of your newborn baby–

  1. Immunising your baby aids in the eradication and elimination of diseases

The ultimate aim of immunising your child is not just to protect your baby but help in the eradication of diseases. Although, the only disease that has been successfully eradicated till date is smallpox, the disease that is being targeted currently is polio.

Efforts are also being made to eliminate diseases locally. For instance, measles has been eliminated in many areas of the world. Protecting your newborn baby from these often fatal diseases is the primary aim of immunisation.

  1. Immunising your baby is quite safe and highly effective

The vaccines created for your just born baby has been thoroughly researched and reviewed by scientists. Thus, they are perfectly safe. When vaccines are administered to your baby, they lead to some pain and discomfort and on occasions may even result in slight fever. But, this temporary discomfort is nothing in comparison to the protection that vaccines offer to your newborn baby against other deadly diseases. Serious side effects of vaccines administration are quite rare.

  1. Immunising your baby helps you to protect others

If you ensure that your child is properly immunised, you do not only ensure the safety of your child and family but also prevent the further spread of the diseases to infants that are too young to receive immunisation or children who are allergic to the vaccine. You also prevent the spread of infections to children whose immune systems are too weak to receive any vaccination.

  1. Immunising your baby helps protect your child and future generations

Many paediatric doctors and researchers are of the opinion that immunisation does not only protect the present generation but also saves the future generation from such diseases. Immunisation against German measles effectively prevents the transmission of the related virus from you, the mother, to your foetus during pregnancy. Small Pox today has been effectively eradicated, saving generations today and those to come from the terrible disease.

  1. Immunising your baby protects your child from developing cancer

Certain infections like Chronic Hepatitis B can increase your baby’s susceptibility to developing liver cancer. Vaccination against such infections can aid in preventing related cancers in your baby later on in his life. For instance, the use of HPV vaccines has considerably reduced the development of cervical cancer.

As you can see, the benefits of immunising your child are great. Vaccines are highly cost effective and have successfully reduced child mortality rate worldwide. It is essential that you should ensure your child gets his dose of vaccines at the right age and the right time, and you can do this by consulting your doctor.

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Immunisation is one of the most important and beneficial advances made by medical science during the 20th century, especially in the field of paediatrics, and is responsible for saving thousands of children from death due to diseases like polio, measles and diphtheria. Read here about benefits of immunizing your child.

Immunisation programs primarily aim to eliminate, contain or control infectious diseases which may affect the health and life of your just born baby, ensuring that he’s healthy and happy. Why should you vaccinate your baby, you ask? Here are six essential benefits of immunisation that will increase the quality of life of your newborn baby–

  1. Immunising your baby aids in the eradication and elimination of diseases

The ultimate aim of immunising your child is not just to protect your baby but help in the eradication of diseases. Although, the only disease that has been successfully eradicated till date is smallpox, the disease that is being targeted currently is polio.

Efforts are also being made to eliminate diseases locally. For instance, measles has been eliminated in many areas of the world. Protecting your newborn baby from these often fatal diseases is the primary aim of immunisation.

  1. Immunising your baby is quite safe and highly effective

The vaccines created for your just born baby has been thoroughly researched and reviewed by scientists. Thus, they are perfectly safe. When vaccines are administered to your baby, they lead to some pain and discomfort and on occasions may even result in slight fever. But, this temporary discomfort is nothing in comparison to the protection that vaccines offer to your newborn baby against other deadly diseases. Serious side effects of vaccines administration are quite rare.

  1. Immunising your baby helps you to protect others

If you ensure that your child is properly immunised, you do not only ensure the safety of your child and family but also prevent the further spread of the diseases to infants that are too young to receive immunisation or children who are allergic to the vaccine. You also prevent the spread of infections to children whose immune systems are too weak to receive any vaccination.

  1. Immunising your baby helps protect your child and future generations

Many paediatric doctors and researchers are of the opinion that immunisation does not only protect the present generation but also saves the future generation from such diseases. Immunisation against German measles effectively prevents the transmission of the related virus from you, the mother, to your foetus during pregnancy. Small Pox today has been effectively eradicated, saving generations today and those to come from the terrible disease.

  1. Immunising your baby protects your child from developing cancer

Certain infections like Chronic Hepatitis B can increase your baby’s susceptibility to developing liver cancer. Vaccination against such infections can aid in preventing related cancers in your baby later on in his life. For instance, the use of HPV vaccines has considerably reduced the development of cervical cancer.

As you can see, the benefits of immunising your child are great. Vaccines are highly cost effective and have successfully reduced child mortality rate worldwide. It is essential that you should ensure your child gets his dose of vaccines at the right age and the right time, and you can do this by consulting your doctor.

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Benefits of immunizing your child

Benefits of immunizing your child

December 16, 2020

Immunisation is one of the most important and beneficial advances ma...

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            [blog_title] => Dengue Fever: Symptoms, Treatment, And Prevention In Kids
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Is that fever ‘Dengue’?

In a country like India, we are used to various kinds of fevers and infections that range from mild to acute. Not all fevers are a reason to panic because, more than anything, they reflect that the body’s immune system is at work trying to fight it off.

In their growing years, children also get fever as a reaction to vaccines, while travelling to a new place, or merely with seasonal changes. However, fevers like Dengue and Malaria, which are transmitted by specific mosquito bites can be a cause for concern.

So, what do I do when the child is running a temperature?

The first step is to always bring your paediatrician or family doctor in the loop. Let him/her know what the child is feeling.

Secondly, in case the fever is more than 102 degrees F / 38 degrees C, along with the prescribed medication, give the child a sponge wipe to help the temperature come down to normal. Ensure that your child stays hydrated, and keeps drinking water at regular intervals.

What is a Dengue fever like?

Though it appears like a regular fever at first, there are other indicators that indicate Dengue. These include:

  • Fever. Temperature can rise up to 100 F or 38.8C 
  • Acute headache
  • Severe pain in the eyes, joints muscles or bones
  • Skin rash all over 
  • Mild bleeding of nose or gums

Normal temperature:

  • In degrees Fahrenheit: 98.4
  • In degrees Celsius :37
  • Symptoms can surface after 4 to 14 days of being bitten by an infected mosquito.
  • Dengue lasts for 2 to 7 days. After recovery, children as well adults are prone to feel intense weakness and exhaustion.
  • Caution: In extreme cases, it can be fatal.

So then, what is the cure?

A viral fever like dengue should be attended to by your family doctor or pediatrician first. Like other viral infections, it needs to be flushed out of the system with the help of prescribed medicines (usually crocin), lots of fluids and plenty of rest.

Your paediatrician will guide you to include natural supplements in the diet, especially fruits. The child’s regular meals should be non-spicy, light, and easy to digest.

But can it be prevented?

The best thing one can do as a parent, is take precautionary measures. This is to safeguard your child from mosquitoes on a daily basis, thereby reducing the risk. Some of these are:

  • Make your child wear long sleeved tops, full length pants / jeans and socks and shoes while going out to play.
  • Apply a drop of natural citronella oil on the sleeves and trousers of your child, especially in the evenings. If unavailable, use a mild mosquito repellent cream or roll on, which should only be applied on the clothes, and not the skin.
  • Make sure your children and their friends are home before it gets dark. Late evening onwards mosquitoes become more active.
  • In the house, make sure that there is no stagnant water collecting (eg. near plants, pet bowls, bird feeders, flower vases or in kitchen corners), where these insects can lay their eggs and breed.
  • Mop the house regularly with a few drops of natural oil like citronella, eucalyptus or lemongrass.
  • Install sliding nets on window sills and balconies. If possible have a net around your child’s bed at night.
  • Keep your home’s windows and doors shut after dusk.

While you follow these precautions, as a parent you should know that you are already doing your best, all the time. So don’t keep feeling guilty each time your child feels unwell. These are apart and parcel of a child’s growing up, no matter how much you try to protect them. Instead, work on improving their immunity through natural supplements, regular exercise and a happy attitude towards life. Also, don’t forget to attend to your own health and wellbeing.

Note: This article is only a guide to help you understand Dengue, but is not a substitute for any actual diagnosis by a qualified medical professional.

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Is that fever ‘Dengue’?

In a country like India, we are used to various kinds of fevers and infections that range from mild to acute. Not all fevers are a reason to panic because, more than anything, they reflect that the body’s immune system is at work trying to fight it off.

In their growing years, children also get fever as a reaction to vaccines, while travelling to a new place, or merely with seasonal changes. However, fevers like Dengue and Malaria, which are transmitted by specific mosquito bites can be a cause for concern.

So, what do I do when the child is running a temperature?

The first step is to always bring your paediatrician or family doctor in the loop. Let him/her know what the child is feeling.

Secondly, in case the fever is more than 102 degrees F / 38 degrees C, along with the prescribed medication, give the child a sponge wipe to help the temperature come down to normal. Ensure that your child stays hydrated, and keeps drinking water at regular intervals.

What is a Dengue fever like?

Though it appears like a regular fever at first, there are other indicators that indicate Dengue. These include:

  • Fever. Temperature can rise up to 100 F or 38.8C 
  • Acute headache
  • Severe pain in the eyes, joints muscles or bones
  • Skin rash all over 
  • Mild bleeding of nose or gums

Normal temperature:

  • In degrees Fahrenheit: 98.4
  • In degrees Celsius :37
  • Symptoms can surface after 4 to 14 days of being bitten by an infected mosquito.
  • Dengue lasts for 2 to 7 days. After recovery, children as well adults are prone to feel intense weakness and exhaustion.
  • Caution: In extreme cases, it can be fatal.

So then, what is the cure?

A viral fever like dengue should be attended to by your family doctor or pediatrician first. Like other viral infections, it needs to be flushed out of the system with the help of prescribed medicines (usually crocin), lots of fluids and plenty of rest.

Your paediatrician will guide you to include natural supplements in the diet, especially fruits. The child’s regular meals should be non-spicy, light, and easy to digest.

But can it be prevented?

The best thing one can do as a parent, is take precautionary measures. This is to safeguard your child from mosquitoes on a daily basis, thereby reducing the risk. Some of these are:

  • Make your child wear long sleeved tops, full length pants / jeans and socks and shoes while going out to play.
  • Apply a drop of natural citronella oil on the sleeves and trousers of your child, especially in the evenings. If unavailable, use a mild mosquito repellent cream or roll on, which should only be applied on the clothes, and not the skin.
  • Make sure your children and their friends are home before it gets dark. Late evening onwards mosquitoes become more active.
  • In the house, make sure that there is no stagnant water collecting (eg. near plants, pet bowls, bird feeders, flower vases or in kitchen corners), where these insects can lay their eggs and breed.
  • Mop the house regularly with a few drops of natural oil like citronella, eucalyptus or lemongrass.
  • Install sliding nets on window sills and balconies. If possible have a net around your child’s bed at night.
  • Keep your home’s windows and doors shut after dusk.

While you follow these precautions, as a parent you should know that you are already doing your best, all the time. So don’t keep feeling guilty each time your child feels unwell. These are apart and parcel of a child’s growing up, no matter how much you try to protect them. Instead, work on improving their immunity through natural supplements, regular exercise and a happy attitude towards life. Also, don’t forget to attend to your own health and wellbeing.

Note: This article is only a guide to help you understand Dengue, but is not a substitute for any actual diagnosis by a qualified medical professional.

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Dengue Fever: Symptoms, Treatment, And Prevention In Kids

Dengue Fever: Symptoms, Treatment, And Prevention In Kids

September 22, 2020

Is that fever ‘Dengue’? ...

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ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT SCREENING FOR DOWN’S SYNDROME

What is Down’s syndrome and why is it relevant to me?

Down’s syndrome is a genetic disorder. The condition occurs when there is an abnormal cell division resulting in either an extra partial or full copy of chromosome 21. Because of this extra genetic material, there are some physical features and development changes associated with the Down Syndrome.

The severity of this condition can vary among individuals. For some, it involves developmental delays while for some others, it results in intellectual disability. It is important to have an understanding of the syndrome and catch the condition early so that the quality of life of the individual can be improved. Here are some common features of the Down ’s Syndrome:

  • Small head
  • Flat face
  • Unusually shaped ears
  • Short neck
  • Short height
  • Palpebral Fissures (upward slanting eyelids)
  • Protruding tongue
  • Excessive Flexibility
  • Poor muscle tone
  • Small hands and feet
  • Short fingers
  • Single crease in the palm
  • Brushfield’s spots (small, white spots on the iris)

This is not a hereditary condition. It is caused by chance at conception, and can affect anyone. Also, since the extra chromosome responsible for the condition cannot be removed from the cell, this makes this disease incurable.

Should I Undergo A Test For Down’s Syndrome?

No matter what your age is while being pregnant, there will always be a risk of giving birth to a baby suffering from Down’s syndrome. However, this risk increases as the age of the mother increases. All pregnant women are advised to get a screening test. About 70% of all the babies born with Down’s syndrome had younger mothers. It is up to you to make the decision of finding out if your baby has this condition or not. Having the information regarding the tests can help you make the right decision.

WHAT TESTS ARE OFFERED?

For the Down’s syndrome, a screening test is conducted before the diagnostic test, as per the requirement. With the help of the screening tests, it can be determined if the babies have an increased risk of having the condition or any other chromosomal abnormalities. For the screening test, all the mothers go through the following two parts:

  • Blood Test – This is a double marker test in which the amount of two chemical substances present in the blood of the mother is measured. This is performed between 10th to 13th weeks of pregnancy.
  • Ultrasound scan – This is Nuchal Translucency (NT) scan which is performed between the 11th to 19th week of pregnancy.

After both the tests are completed, the results from both are combined with the age to estimate the probability of the unborn baby being affected by the condition.

If you are past the 13th week of pregnancy and didn’t have the double marker test conducted in the first trimester, you can have the risk assessment done through a blood test. This is known as a Quadruple marker test which can be performed between the 15th and 21st week of pregnancy.

A diagnostic test will need to be conducted for getting a definitive result on whether the baby has Down’s syndrome or not. This test is mostly conducted only when there is an increased risk of a miscarriage or pregnancy loss in the screening test.

Can I undergo only the NT scan?

Yes, it is possible to just get the NT scan done. The scan alone is perfectly capable of detecting about 70% of the pregnancies with the condition. However, the results received from the combined results of the blood and the scan test provide a higher detection rate than the blood test or scan alone. It can identify 90% of the pregnancies with the condition.

What are the types of screening test results I can expect to receive?

“LOW RISK” or “SCREEN NEGATIVE” (The most common result)

If the result of the screening test was lower than the cut off value of 1:1250, it means a screen negative or low risk result. However, it doesn’t mean that there is no risk. It simply means that the probability of your baby having this condition is extremely low.  If there is no other medical reason, you won’t have to undergo a diagnostic test. If you still want to get a confirmation on the genetic makeup of the baby, you can still opt for the diagnostic test.

“HIGH RISK” or “SCREEN POSITIVE” (Less than 5% i.e., 1 in 20 women)

If the result of the screening test is more than the cut off value of 1:250, it means that there is a screen positive or high risk result. After this, you will either have to go through a Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT) or a diagnostic test. However, it is your decision to have a diagnostic test or not. The diagnostic test won’t have a risk to your pregnancy but will leave some uncertainty until the baby is born. If you decide to go through the diagnostic test, make sure that you have all the information regarding the tests. You will get a definitive answer through the diagnostic tests but there will be a small risk of miscarriage.

If none of the above options suit you, you can try the early anomaly scan that is one between the 16th and 18th week of pregnancy. Or, you can go for the routine detailed anomaly scan that is performed between the 18th and 20th week of pregnancy.

Diagnostic tests for Down’s syndrome

For Down’s syndrome, there are two diagnostic tests available:

  1. CVS (Chorionic Villus Sampling) – In this test, the cells from the placenta are taken and analyzed to check for the condition in the fetal chromosomes. In most cases, this diagnostic test is conducted between the 10th and 13th week of pregnancy, i.e. in the first trimester. Also, the risk of miscarriage or pregnancy loss from this test is very low.
  2. Amniocentesis – In this test, amniotic fluid sample is taken that surrounds the fetus. A needle is used to draw out this fluid from the mother’s uterus. The sample is used to analyze the fetus’s chromosomes. This test is conducted after the 15th week of pregnancy, i.e. in the second trimester. With this test also there is a low risk of miscarriage.

If a couple has undergone in-vitro fertilization and they are at a higher risk of passing the genetic condition, preimplantation genetic diagnosis is performed so that the embryo can be tested for any genetic abnormalities.

What are the possible results from diagnostic tests?

There are only two possible results from a diagnostic test:

  • Baby has the condition
  • Baby doesn’t have the condition

Every year, about 3000 to 5000 babies are born with this condition. So, the probability of the latter is significantly more than that of the former.

What happens if my baby has Down’s syndrome?

If your baby has been diagnosed with Down’s syndrome, there are two ways a parent can go:

  • Decide that they don’t want to continue the pregnancy and choose to abort. Discuss the health consequences of abortion with the doctor.
  • Decide that they want to have a baby. If you have selected this, you need to make a plan and prepare yourself with the extra challenges that come with raising a child with Down’s syndrome.
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ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT SCREENING FOR DOWN’S SYNDROME

What is Down’s syndrome and why is it relevant to me?

Down’s syndrome is a genetic disorder. The condition occurs when there is an abnormal cell division resulting in either an extra partial or full copy of chromosome 21. Because of this extra genetic material, there are some physical features and development changes associated with the Down Syndrome.

The severity of this condition can vary among individuals. For some, it involves developmental delays while for some others, it results in intellectual disability. It is important to have an understanding of the syndrome and catch the condition early so that the quality of life of the individual can be improved. Here are some common features of the Down ’s Syndrome:

  • Small head
  • Flat face
  • Unusually shaped ears
  • Short neck
  • Short height
  • Palpebral Fissures (upward slanting eyelids)
  • Protruding tongue
  • Excessive Flexibility
  • Poor muscle tone
  • Small hands and feet
  • Short fingers
  • Single crease in the palm
  • Brushfield’s spots (small, white spots on the iris)

This is not a hereditary condition. It is caused by chance at conception, and can affect anyone. Also, since the extra chromosome responsible for the condition cannot be removed from the cell, this makes this disease incurable.

Should I Undergo A Test For Down’s Syndrome?

No matter what your age is while being pregnant, there will always be a risk of giving birth to a baby suffering from Down’s syndrome. However, this risk increases as the age of the mother increases. All pregnant women are advised to get a screening test. About 70% of all the babies born with Down’s syndrome had younger mothers. It is up to you to make the decision of finding out if your baby has this condition or not. Having the information regarding the tests can help you make the right decision.

WHAT TESTS ARE OFFERED?

For the Down’s syndrome, a screening test is conducted before the diagnostic test, as per the requirement. With the help of the screening tests, it can be determined if the babies have an increased risk of having the condition or any other chromosomal abnormalities. For the screening test, all the mothers go through the following two parts:

  • Blood Test – This is a double marker test in which the amount of two chemical substances present in the blood of the mother is measured. This is performed between 10th to 13th weeks of pregnancy.
  • Ultrasound scan – This is Nuchal Translucency (NT) scan which is performed between the 11th to 19th week of pregnancy.

After both the tests are completed, the results from both are combined with the age to estimate the probability of the unborn baby being affected by the condition.

If you are past the 13th week of pregnancy and didn’t have the double marker test conducted in the first trimester, you can have the risk assessment done through a blood test. This is known as a Quadruple marker test which can be performed between the 15th and 21st week of pregnancy.

A diagnostic test will need to be conducted for getting a definitive result on whether the baby has Down’s syndrome or not. This test is mostly conducted only when there is an increased risk of a miscarriage or pregnancy loss in the screening test.

Can I undergo only the NT scan?

Yes, it is possible to just get the NT scan done. The scan alone is perfectly capable of detecting about 70% of the pregnancies with the condition. However, the results received from the combined results of the blood and the scan test provide a higher detection rate than the blood test or scan alone. It can identify 90% of the pregnancies with the condition.

What are the types of screening test results I can expect to receive?

“LOW RISK” or “SCREEN NEGATIVE” (The most common result)

If the result of the screening test was lower than the cut off value of 1:1250, it means a screen negative or low risk result. However, it doesn’t mean that there is no risk. It simply means that the probability of your baby having this condition is extremely low.  If there is no other medical reason, you won’t have to undergo a diagnostic test. If you still want to get a confirmation on the genetic makeup of the baby, you can still opt for the diagnostic test.

“HIGH RISK” or “SCREEN POSITIVE” (Less than 5% i.e., 1 in 20 women)

If the result of the screening test is more than the cut off value of 1:250, it means that there is a screen positive or high risk result. After this, you will either have to go through a Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT) or a diagnostic test. However, it is your decision to have a diagnostic test or not. The diagnostic test won’t have a risk to your pregnancy but will leave some uncertainty until the baby is born. If you decide to go through the diagnostic test, make sure that you have all the information regarding the tests. You will get a definitive answer through the diagnostic tests but there will be a small risk of miscarriage.

If none of the above options suit you, you can try the early anomaly scan that is one between the 16th and 18th week of pregnancy. Or, you can go for the routine detailed anomaly scan that is performed between the 18th and 20th week of pregnancy.

Diagnostic tests for Down’s syndrome

For Down’s syndrome, there are two diagnostic tests available:

  1. CVS (Chorionic Villus Sampling) – In this test, the cells from the placenta are taken and analyzed to check for the condition in the fetal chromosomes. In most cases, this diagnostic test is conducted between the 10th and 13th week of pregnancy, i.e. in the first trimester. Also, the risk of miscarriage or pregnancy loss from this test is very low.
  2. Amniocentesis – In this test, amniotic fluid sample is taken that surrounds the fetus. A needle is used to draw out this fluid from the mother’s uterus. The sample is used to analyze the fetus’s chromosomes. This test is conducted after the 15th week of pregnancy, i.e. in the second trimester. With this test also there is a low risk of miscarriage.

If a couple has undergone in-vitro fertilization and they are at a higher risk of passing the genetic condition, preimplantation genetic diagnosis is performed so that the embryo can be tested for any genetic abnormalities.

What are the possible results from diagnostic tests?

There are only two possible results from a diagnostic test:

  • Baby has the condition
  • Baby doesn’t have the condition

Every year, about 3000 to 5000 babies are born with this condition. So, the probability of the latter is significantly more than that of the former.

What happens if my baby has Down’s syndrome?

If your baby has been diagnosed with Down’s syndrome, there are two ways a parent can go:

  • Decide that they don’t want to continue the pregnancy and choose to abort. Discuss the health consequences of abortion with the doctor.
  • Decide that they want to have a baby. If you have selected this, you need to make a plan and prepare yourself with the extra challenges that come with raising a child with Down’s syndrome.
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Screening for Down Syndrome

Screening for Down Syndrome

June 14, 2020

ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT SCREENING FOR ...

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While it is normal for children to have indigestion or stomach ache once in a while, if this becomes a recurrent thing and happens often, you should consult a doctor. Nowadays, with the unhealthy diet that most children have and all the junk and processed food that they eat, they are bound to have digestive disorders. Children must get their nutrients and vitamins from every food group and in the right quantity. There are several digestive disorders found in children, and while their causes are all different, their symptoms are very similar – nausea, stomach ache, vomiting, dehydration and diarrhoea.

Some of the most common digestive disorders found in children are:

  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) – This disorder is mainly found in older children in their teens. There are two types of IBD which are:
  • Ulcerative colitis – This condition is caused due to swelling in the colon
  • Crohn’s disease – Under this condition, all parts of the digestive tract can be affected.

IBD delays puberty and affects the child’s growth. Some of the minor symptoms of IBD include bloody and watery faeces and stomach pains. Some of the major symptoms are joint pain, irritation in the eyes, kidney stones, liver disease, and weak bones. The treatment usually recommended by doctors is a change of diet to a healthier and more nutritious alternative, accompanied by some oral medicines. This will ensure that the symptoms go away, and will also prevent them from recurring.

  • Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders (EGID) – It is the most common digestive disorder found in children. It is caused due to the excess of white blood cells found in the digestive tract that causes inflammation and swelling leading to pain and discomfort while swallowing. There is no specific treatment for EGID but doctors may recommend steroids that would help in reducing your white blood cell count. In severe cases, you may have to use a feeding tube. 
  • Celiac Disease – This disorder is found in children who have a negative reaction to gluten. Gluten is a protein that is found in wheat, barley and rye. In other words, children with this disorder are allergic to gluten, and thus cannot eat foods that have flour in them. In celiac disease, the small intestine is damaged, preventing the body from absorbing any nutrients from the food you eat. The best treatment is to cut out gluten from your child’s diet completely. This will not only help him/her feel better but also help heal all the previous internal damage done by gluten. 
  • Volvulus – This is a very dangerous disorder that requires immediate medical attention. It occurs when the child’s intestines get twisted and ties themselves up, leading to blockage of faeces causing constipation. In some severe cases, the blood supply is also cut off. The only treatment available is surgery, a quick and efficient fix. Children who have had the surgery done are now leading healthy lives with normal growth. 
  • Short Bowel Syndrome – A child suffering from this condition does not have enough intestine to absorb all the nutrients from the food either because they have a few sections of their intestine missing or they were removed. The main causes of short bowel syndrome are injury to the intestine, a blocked vessel causing slow blood flow, intussusception, Crohn’s disease and lastly, cancer. Short Bowel Syndrome causes problems such as dehydration, malnutrition, diaper rashes, and in severe cases, kidney stones. Diarrhoea is the main symptom of Short Bowel Syndrome. 
  • Intussusception – This condition is caused when one part of the intestine folds into another part. It is most commonly found in younger children. The cause of intussusception is still unknown but symptoms include fatigue, swelling, pain and sometimes even tears in the intestine. Surgery is an option for treatment when the case of intussusception is severe, but it very rarely comes to that. Usually, treatment can be done through a simple air or liquid enema to push back the part of the intestine that is overlapping.
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While it is normal for children to have indigestion or stomach ache once in a while, if this becomes a recurrent thing and happens often, you should consult a doctor. Nowadays, with the unhealthy diet that most children have and all the junk and processed food that they eat, they are bound to have digestive disorders. Children must get their nutrients and vitamins from every food group and in the right quantity. There are several digestive disorders found in children, and while their causes are all different, their symptoms are very similar – nausea, stomach ache, vomiting, dehydration and diarrhoea.

Some of the most common digestive disorders found in children are:

  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) – This disorder is mainly found in older children in their teens. There are two types of IBD which are:
  • Ulcerative colitis – This condition is caused due to swelling in the colon
  • Crohn’s disease – Under this condition, all parts of the digestive tract can be affected.

IBD delays puberty and affects the child’s growth. Some of the minor symptoms of IBD include bloody and watery faeces and stomach pains. Some of the major symptoms are joint pain, irritation in the eyes, kidney stones, liver disease, and weak bones. The treatment usually recommended by doctors is a change of diet to a healthier and more nutritious alternative, accompanied by some oral medicines. This will ensure that the symptoms go away, and will also prevent them from recurring.

  • Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders (EGID) – It is the most common digestive disorder found in children. It is caused due to the excess of white blood cells found in the digestive tract that causes inflammation and swelling leading to pain and discomfort while swallowing. There is no specific treatment for EGID but doctors may recommend steroids that would help in reducing your white blood cell count. In severe cases, you may have to use a feeding tube. 
  • Celiac Disease – This disorder is found in children who have a negative reaction to gluten. Gluten is a protein that is found in wheat, barley and rye. In other words, children with this disorder are allergic to gluten, and thus cannot eat foods that have flour in them. In celiac disease, the small intestine is damaged, preventing the body from absorbing any nutrients from the food you eat. The best treatment is to cut out gluten from your child’s diet completely. This will not only help him/her feel better but also help heal all the previous internal damage done by gluten. 
  • Volvulus – This is a very dangerous disorder that requires immediate medical attention. It occurs when the child’s intestines get twisted and ties themselves up, leading to blockage of faeces causing constipation. In some severe cases, the blood supply is also cut off. The only treatment available is surgery, a quick and efficient fix. Children who have had the surgery done are now leading healthy lives with normal growth. 
  • Short Bowel Syndrome – A child suffering from this condition does not have enough intestine to absorb all the nutrients from the food either because they have a few sections of their intestine missing or they were removed. The main causes of short bowel syndrome are injury to the intestine, a blocked vessel causing slow blood flow, intussusception, Crohn’s disease and lastly, cancer. Short Bowel Syndrome causes problems such as dehydration, malnutrition, diaper rashes, and in severe cases, kidney stones. Diarrhoea is the main symptom of Short Bowel Syndrome. 
  • Intussusception – This condition is caused when one part of the intestine folds into another part. It is most commonly found in younger children. The cause of intussusception is still unknown but symptoms include fatigue, swelling, pain and sometimes even tears in the intestine. Surgery is an option for treatment when the case of intussusception is severe, but it very rarely comes to that. Usually, treatment can be done through a simple air or liquid enema to push back the part of the intestine that is overlapping.
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Most Common Digestive Disorders in Kids

Most Common Digestive Disorders in Kids

February 18, 2019

While it is normal for children to have indigestion or stomach ache ...

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            [blog_title] => What are Posterior urethral valves (PUV)?
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By
Dr. Yoga Nagender M
MBBS, MS – General Surgery, MCh – Pediatric Surgery, DNB – Pediatric Surgery
Consultant Pediatric Surgeon
Apollo Cradle, Kondapur

Posterior urethral valves (PUV) are thick prominent folds in the urethra starting below very montanum level which prevents a free flow of urine from the urinary bladder. As the PUV blocks the urine passage back pressures are exerted onto the posterior urethra, urinary bladder, ureters and kidneys. Which starts obstructive damage to the child from the prenatal period.

What decides the future of the child with PUV?

– Thick prominent valves

– Renal dysplasia

– Early Management

– Pop-off mechanisms – Vesico ureteric reflux on one side, Urinoma, Bladder diverticulum

– Regular follow-ups

What to expect after Prenatal detection of Posterior urethral valves?

If PUV is diagnosed during TIFFA scan and confirmed with oligohydramnios and lung hypoplasia, termination can be discussed during antenatal counselling with the pediatric surgeon. In addition to the Obstetrician, Pediatric surgeon will discuss the condition of the unborn child, planning of the perinatal management and the long-term prognosis.

Evaluation after birth – 

Palpable urinary bladder, high serum creatinine after 24 hours and poor stream of urine support the clinical suspicion. Ultrasound KUB and Voiding cystourethrography ( VCU / MCUG) confirm the diagnosis of Posterior urethral valves.

Management of PUV-

Fulguration of Valves- Cystoscopy and primary fulguration of valves is the gold standard treatment for PUV management. Fulguration of valves is the beginning of the treatment. Life-long follow-ups with the pediatric nephrologist and medical management are mandatory.

Vesicostomy- In a few special situations vesicostomy is done and a fulguration with vesicostomy closure is performed at a later date as decided by the treating pediatric surgeon.

End-stage renal disease  (ESRD) in PUV child possibility and management depends on the severity of the valve and pressure effects on the upper tracts as it is an irreversible change.

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By
Dr. Yoga Nagender M
MBBS, MS – General Surgery, MCh – Pediatric Surgery, DNB – Pediatric Surgery
Consultant Pediatric Surgeon
Apollo Cradle, Kondapur

Posterior urethral valves (PUV) are thick prominent folds in the urethra starting below very montanum level which prevents a free flow of urine from the urinary bladder. As the PUV blocks the urine passage back pressures are exerted onto the posterior urethra, urinary bladder, ureters and kidneys. Which starts obstructive damage to the child from the prenatal period.

What decides the future of the child with PUV?

– Thick prominent valves

– Renal dysplasia

– Early Management

– Pop-off mechanisms – Vesico ureteric reflux on one side, Urinoma, Bladder diverticulum

– Regular follow-ups

What to expect after Prenatal detection of Posterior urethral valves?

If PUV is diagnosed during TIFFA scan and confirmed with oligohydramnios and lung hypoplasia, termination can be discussed during antenatal counselling with the pediatric surgeon. In addition to the Obstetrician, Pediatric surgeon will discuss the condition of the unborn child, planning of the perinatal management and the long-term prognosis.

Evaluation after birth – 

Palpable urinary bladder, high serum creatinine after 24 hours and poor stream of urine support the clinical suspicion. Ultrasound KUB and Voiding cystourethrography ( VCU / MCUG) confirm the diagnosis of Posterior urethral valves.

Management of PUV-

Fulguration of Valves- Cystoscopy and primary fulguration of valves is the gold standard treatment for PUV management. Fulguration of valves is the beginning of the treatment. Life-long follow-ups with the pediatric nephrologist and medical management are mandatory.

Vesicostomy- In a few special situations vesicostomy is done and a fulguration with vesicostomy closure is performed at a later date as decided by the treating pediatric surgeon.

End-stage renal disease  (ESRD) in PUV child possibility and management depends on the severity of the valve and pressure effects on the upper tracts as it is an irreversible change.

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What are Posterior urethral valves (PUV)?

What are Posterior urethral valves (PUV)?

November 9, 2018

By Dr. Yoga Nagender M MBBS, MS &ndas...

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            [blog_title] => How to deal with earwax of your child ?
            [metaTitle] => How to deal with earwax of your child ?
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Earwax is nothing but secretions from glands in ear canals, sweat, and skin that has been shed. It has an important role in keeping the ears healthy. Medical term of earwax is cerumen. Earwax helps to

  • trap tiny particles of dirt and dust
  • protect the eardrum and ear canal by giving a waterproof lining for the ear canal

After the wax is produced in the ear, it slowly comes out through the outer ear canal. Then the wax falls out or comes at the time of bath.

Some kids have more earwax compared to others. The presence of excess ear wax can impact ear canal, and this could be painful. Sometimes ear wax can affect hearing.

Symptoms of an earwax impaction are

  • reduced hearing
  • dizziness
  • ear pain
  • plugged or fullness sensation
  • ringing in the ear
  • itching or drainage from the ear canal

Points to remember:

  • Avoid inserting any cotton swab into your child’s ear canal.
  • Remember to consult a pediatrician if your child shows any signs of infection.
  • If the wax does not come out of your child’s ear after following the above steps, you can try using the drops for few more days and then flush again.

When home remedies do not work, take your child to a doctor who can remove the wax using specialized tools.

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Earwax is nothing but secretions from glands in ear canals, sweat, and skin that has been shed. It has an important role in keeping the ears healthy. Medical term of earwax is cerumen. Earwax helps to

  • trap tiny particles of dirt and dust
  • protect the eardrum and ear canal by giving a waterproof lining for the ear canal

After the wax is produced in the ear, it slowly comes out through the outer ear canal. Then the wax falls out or comes at the time of bath.

Some kids have more earwax compared to others. The presence of excess ear wax can impact ear canal, and this could be painful. Sometimes ear wax can affect hearing.

Symptoms of an earwax impaction are

  • reduced hearing
  • dizziness
  • ear pain
  • plugged or fullness sensation
  • ringing in the ear
  • itching or drainage from the ear canal

Points to remember:

  • Avoid inserting any cotton swab into your child’s ear canal.
  • Remember to consult a pediatrician if your child shows any signs of infection.
  • If the wax does not come out of your child’s ear after following the above steps, you can try using the drops for few more days and then flush again.

When home remedies do not work, take your child to a doctor who can remove the wax using specialized tools.

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How to deal with earwax of your child ?

How to deal with earwax of your child ?

January 18, 2017

Earwax is nothing but secretions from glands in ear canals, sweat, a...

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            [blog_title] => Top five reasons to immunize or vaccinate your child
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Immunization or vaccination is significant for child’s health as it helps to protect them against a range of diseases. Under UIP (Universal Immunization Programme) following vaccines are provided: BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin), DPT (Diphtheria, Pertussis, and Tetanus Toxoid), OPV (Oral Polio Vaccine), Measles, Hepatitis B, and others. Here are reasons why you should vaccinate/immunize your child:

  • Immunization can protect your child’s life: Advances in medical science helps to give protection to your child from various diseases. Earlier certain diseases used to injure or kill thousands of children however with the help of vaccination those diseases have been eliminated completely or some of them are close to being gone. Example: Polio was one of the most dangerous disease causing death and paralysis across the globe. However, due to vaccination, the disease is almost eradicated from the country.
  • Vaccines are safe and effective: Vaccines are administrated to the children after a long and careful review by doctors and scientists. Immunization involves some discomfort including pain, redness or However, this is minimal than the pain and discomfort of the diseases in actual. Serious side effects post vaccinations including allergic reactions are very rare.
  • Immunization gives protection to others: There are certain vaccine-preventable diseases still occur. Newborn babies are too young for the vaccination, and some people cannot receive vaccine due to allergies, illness, weakened immune systems or other reasons.  Hence, you and your child should get vaccinated which will help to keep safe these individuals. This way Immunization not only protects your family but also prevents the spread of these diseases to friends and loved ones.
  • Immunization can save your family and money: Prolonged illness due to vaccine-preventable diseases can affect financial conditions because of lost time at work, medical bills or long-term disability care. Hence, getting vaccinated against these diseases is found to be useful.

IAP- Immunizeindia is the world’s largest vaccination reminder service. The service is available free of cost to parents resides anywhere in India.

Immunization gives protection to future generation: Many diseases which killed or severely disabled people a few generations before, now have been reduced or eliminated through vaccination. For example, small pox has been eradicated globally. Present generation children do not have to get smallpox vaccine because the disease has been eradicated. Thus if present generation children are vaccinated, parents in the future may be able to trust that diseases including polio and measles would not infect or kill children.

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Immunization or vaccination is significant for child’s health as it helps to protect them against a range of diseases. Under UIP (Universal Immunization Programme) following vaccines are provided: BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin), DPT (Diphtheria, Pertussis, and Tetanus Toxoid), OPV (Oral Polio Vaccine), Measles, Hepatitis B, and others. Here are reasons why you should vaccinate/immunize your child:

  • Immunization can protect your child’s life: Advances in medical science helps to give protection to your child from various diseases. Earlier certain diseases used to injure or kill thousands of children however with the help of vaccination those diseases have been eliminated completely or some of them are close to being gone. Example: Polio was one of the most dangerous disease causing death and paralysis across the globe. However, due to vaccination, the disease is almost eradicated from the country.
  • Vaccines are safe and effective: Vaccines are administrated to the children after a long and careful review by doctors and scientists. Immunization involves some discomfort including pain, redness or However, this is minimal than the pain and discomfort of the diseases in actual. Serious side effects post vaccinations including allergic reactions are very rare.
  • Immunization gives protection to others: There are certain vaccine-preventable diseases still occur. Newborn babies are too young for the vaccination, and some people cannot receive vaccine due to allergies, illness, weakened immune systems or other reasons.  Hence, you and your child should get vaccinated which will help to keep safe these individuals. This way Immunization not only protects your family but also prevents the spread of these diseases to friends and loved ones.
  • Immunization can save your family and money: Prolonged illness due to vaccine-preventable diseases can affect financial conditions because of lost time at work, medical bills or long-term disability care. Hence, getting vaccinated against these diseases is found to be useful.

IAP- Immunizeindia is the world’s largest vaccination reminder service. The service is available free of cost to parents resides anywhere in India.

Immunization gives protection to future generation: Many diseases which killed or severely disabled people a few generations before, now have been reduced or eliminated through vaccination. For example, small pox has been eradicated globally. Present generation children do not have to get smallpox vaccine because the disease has been eradicated. Thus if present generation children are vaccinated, parents in the future may be able to trust that diseases including polio and measles would not infect or kill children.

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Top five reasons to immunize or vaccinate your child

Top five reasons to immunize or vaccinate your child

January 18, 2017

Immunization or vaccination is significant for child’s health ...

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            [blog_title] => Tips to cope up when your baby is in the NICU
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If your baby has born premature or sick, then the baby is kept in a neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU). When a newborn is in NICU, parents of the newborn literally go through a lot of emotional setbacks. Following tips can help you to cope up during this time:
Prepare yourself to go through an emotional stage: You might be worried regarding your baby’s health problems. It is absolutely okay to feel emotional and cry. At times you might feel sad and jealous about other new moms whose babies were born without complications, and you need to understand that it is perfectly okay.
Know about your baby’s doctor: Speak to the doctor who is diagnosing your baby and try to understand the situation in lay-friendly terms. If you are not able to present personally you can get update from the nurse who was present in the NICU during doctor’s visit.
Take care of yourself: Though you prefer to spend much time with your baby at NICU however it is important to stay healthy so that you can take care of your baby. Get enough sleep and exercise to reduce the stress. Eat healthy meals and carry healthy snacks on the go.
Prepare to breastfeed: Babies kept in the NICU are normally fed through a tube first; hence you may have to delay breastfeeding. However, after your baby’s birth you can start building up your milk supply and nurse later on.
Accept help from others: Do not hesitate to accept help from others. Ask for favours from others regarding help in laundry, sleepover for older sibling, pick up and drop to hospitals.
Set Limitations: NICU has strict rules for visitors and however, you can also set limitations and restrict more visitors to NICU. You can also restrict visitors not to touch baby’s hands or feet.
Managing elder sibling: If you have an elder child, then make them understand the reason behind their new sibling’s hospital stay. It is also important to spend some time with your elder child so that they don’t get lost.

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If your baby has born premature or sick, then the baby is kept in a neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU). When a newborn is in NICU, parents of the newborn literally go through a lot of emotional setbacks. Following tips can help you to cope up during this time:
Prepare yourself to go through an emotional stage: You might be worried regarding your baby’s health problems. It is absolutely okay to feel emotional and cry. At times you might feel sad and jealous about other new moms whose babies were born without complications, and you need to understand that it is perfectly okay.
Know about your baby’s doctor: Speak to the doctor who is diagnosing your baby and try to understand the situation in lay-friendly terms. If you are not able to present personally you can get update from the nurse who was present in the NICU during doctor’s visit.
Take care of yourself: Though you prefer to spend much time with your baby at NICU however it is important to stay healthy so that you can take care of your baby. Get enough sleep and exercise to reduce the stress. Eat healthy meals and carry healthy snacks on the go.
Prepare to breastfeed: Babies kept in the NICU are normally fed through a tube first; hence you may have to delay breastfeeding. However, after your baby’s birth you can start building up your milk supply and nurse later on.
Accept help from others: Do not hesitate to accept help from others. Ask for favours from others regarding help in laundry, sleepover for older sibling, pick up and drop to hospitals.
Set Limitations: NICU has strict rules for visitors and however, you can also set limitations and restrict more visitors to NICU. You can also restrict visitors not to touch baby’s hands or feet.
Managing elder sibling: If you have an elder child, then make them understand the reason behind their new sibling’s hospital stay. It is also important to spend some time with your elder child so that they don’t get lost.

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Tips to cope up when your baby is in the NICU

Tips to cope up when your baby is in the NICU

January 13, 2017

If your baby has born premature or sick, then the baby is kept in a ...

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