Neonatology

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What is Neonatal Jaundice?

Newborn jaundice or Neonatal Jaundice is a common and usually harmless condition in newborn babies that causes yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes.

Symptoms of newborn jaundice can also include a yellowing of the palms of the hands or soles of the feet, dark, yellow urine and pale stools.

Symptoms usually develop two to three days after birth and settle down by the time the baby is about two weeks old without treatment. This is known as physiologic jaundice

Diagnosis:

The level of bilirubin in the blood will be tested. This is done with a small device called a bilirubinometer, which beams light on to the baby’s skin and calculates the level of bilirubin.

A blood test for blood bilirubin levels is done on a sample of blood drawn from a heel prick.  Blood tests are usually only necessary if your baby developed jaundice within 24 hours of birth or the reading is particularly high. Whether treatment is necessary or not will depend on the level of bilirubin in the baby’s blood.

Causes of newborn jaundice:

Jaundice is caused because of the increase in bilirubin levels in the blood. Bilirubin is produced by the breakdown of red blood cells in the blood. Newborn babies have a high level of red blood cells in their blood, which are gradually broken down and replaced.  The bilirubin formed from this breakdown, travels in the blood to the liver. The liver processes the bilirubin by changing the form to one that can be passed out of the body in the stool.

Jaundice results if there is too much bilirubin in the blood or if the liver, because it is not fully developed in newborns, cannot get rid of it. By two weeks, the liver matures and is more effective in processing the bilirubin, so jaundice often corrects itself by this age.

Breastfeeding is sometimes associated with jaundice. How this happens is not clear but it is thought that breast milk contains substances that affects the liver’s ability to process bilirubin. However the benefits of breastfeeding far exceed the risks of jaundice and it is not necessary to stop breastfeeding because of this.

Sometimes, jaundice may be the result of other health conditions –this is called pathological jaundice.

  • blood group incompatibility –If the mother and baby have different blood types
  • Rh factor incompatibility: If the mother has Rh-negative blood and the baby has Rh positive blood
  • a urinary tract infection
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Crigler-Najjar syndrome – an inherited condition that affects the enzyme responsible for processing bilirubin
  • a blockage in the bile ducts and gallbladder can result in a buildup of bilirubin in the blood.
  • G6PD deficiency could also lead to jaundice. This is associated with a family history of G6PD deficiency.

Treatment of Newborn jaundice:

Treatment is required only if the baby has high levels of bilirubin. If your baby’s jaundice doesn’t improve over time or tests show high levels of bilirubin in their blood, they may be admitted to hospital for treatment. Treatment is required to prevent the complication of kernicterus which can cause brain damage.

If treatment is needed, the bay should continue to be breastfed or bottle fed. Treatment of jaundice is with phototherapy. Phototherapy acts through a process called photo-oxidation in which oxygen is added to the bilirubin so that it dissolves in water and can be easily removed by the liver.

Phototherapy is given as

  • conventional phototherapy in which the baby lies under a halogen or fluorescent lamp with their eyes covered
  • fiberoptic phototherapy where the baby lies on a blanket with fiberoptic cables, through which light travels and shines on the baby’s back.

The bilirubin levels will be tested regularly after phototherapy has started. Phototherapy will be stopped when the bilirubin level falls to a safe level.

Phototherapy has very few side effects, except for a temporary rash or tan and is very effective in bringing down the bilirubin levels.

An exchange transfusion may be recommended if the levels of bilirubin are high or phototherapy hasn’t been effective. Small amounts of your baby’s blood are removed and then replaced with blood from a suitable matching donor. This serves to bring the levels of bilirubin down as the transfused blood has normal bilirubin levels.

If the jaundice is caused by Rh incompatibility (the mother has Rh negative blood and the baby has Rh positive blood), intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) may be used if phototherapy has not worked and the bilirubin levels are rising.

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What is Neonatal Jaundice?

Newborn jaundice or Neonatal Jaundice is a common and usually harmless condition in newborn babies that causes yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes.

Symptoms of newborn jaundice can also include a yellowing of the palms of the hands or soles of the feet, dark, yellow urine and pale stools.

Symptoms usually develop two to three days after birth and settle down by the time the baby is about two weeks old without treatment. This is known as physiologic jaundice

Diagnosis:

The level of bilirubin in the blood will be tested. This is done with a small device called a bilirubinometer, which beams light on to the baby’s skin and calculates the level of bilirubin.

A blood test for blood bilirubin levels is done on a sample of blood drawn from a heel prick.  Blood tests are usually only necessary if your baby developed jaundice within 24 hours of birth or the reading is particularly high. Whether treatment is necessary or not will depend on the level of bilirubin in the baby’s blood.

Causes of newborn jaundice:

Jaundice is caused because of the increase in bilirubin levels in the blood. Bilirubin is produced by the breakdown of red blood cells in the blood. Newborn babies have a high level of red blood cells in their blood, which are gradually broken down and replaced.  The bilirubin formed from this breakdown, travels in the blood to the liver. The liver processes the bilirubin by changing the form to one that can be passed out of the body in the stool.

Jaundice results if there is too much bilirubin in the blood or if the liver, because it is not fully developed in newborns, cannot get rid of it. By two weeks, the liver matures and is more effective in processing the bilirubin, so jaundice often corrects itself by this age.

Breastfeeding is sometimes associated with jaundice. How this happens is not clear but it is thought that breast milk contains substances that affects the liver’s ability to process bilirubin. However the benefits of breastfeeding far exceed the risks of jaundice and it is not necessary to stop breastfeeding because of this.

Sometimes, jaundice may be the result of other health conditions –this is called pathological jaundice.

  • blood group incompatibility –If the mother and baby have different blood types
  • Rh factor incompatibility: If the mother has Rh-negative blood and the baby has Rh positive blood
  • a urinary tract infection
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Crigler-Najjar syndrome – an inherited condition that affects the enzyme responsible for processing bilirubin
  • a blockage in the bile ducts and gallbladder can result in a buildup of bilirubin in the blood.
  • G6PD deficiency could also lead to jaundice. This is associated with a family history of G6PD deficiency.

Treatment of Newborn jaundice:

Treatment is required only if the baby has high levels of bilirubin. If your baby’s jaundice doesn’t improve over time or tests show high levels of bilirubin in their blood, they may be admitted to hospital for treatment. Treatment is required to prevent the complication of kernicterus which can cause brain damage.

If treatment is needed, the bay should continue to be breastfed or bottle fed. Treatment of jaundice is with phototherapy. Phototherapy acts through a process called photo-oxidation in which oxygen is added to the bilirubin so that it dissolves in water and can be easily removed by the liver.

Phototherapy is given as

  • conventional phototherapy in which the baby lies under a halogen or fluorescent lamp with their eyes covered
  • fiberoptic phototherapy where the baby lies on a blanket with fiberoptic cables, through which light travels and shines on the baby’s back.

The bilirubin levels will be tested regularly after phototherapy has started. Phototherapy will be stopped when the bilirubin level falls to a safe level.

Phototherapy has very few side effects, except for a temporary rash or tan and is very effective in bringing down the bilirubin levels.

An exchange transfusion may be recommended if the levels of bilirubin are high or phototherapy hasn’t been effective. Small amounts of your baby’s blood are removed and then replaced with blood from a suitable matching donor. This serves to bring the levels of bilirubin down as the transfused blood has normal bilirubin levels.

If the jaundice is caused by Rh incompatibility (the mother has Rh negative blood and the baby has Rh positive blood), intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) may be used if phototherapy has not worked and the bilirubin levels are rising.

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Newborn Jaundice: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Newborn Jaundice: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

January 18, 2024

What is Neonatal Jaundice? Newborn jaun...

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            [blog_title] => CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF BIRTH DEFECTS
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Birth defects are structural changes present at birth that can affect almost any part or parts of the body (e.g., heart, brain, foot). They may affect how the body looks, works, or both. Birth defects can vary from mild to severe. The well-being of each child affected with a birth defect depends mostly on which organ or body part is involved and how much it is affected.

How to Identify Birth Defects?

A birth defect can be found before birth, at birth, or any time after birth. Most birth defects are found within the first year of life. Some birth defects (such as cleft lip) are easy to see, but others (such as heart defects or hearing loss) are found using special tests, such as echocardiograms (an ultrasound picture of the heart), x-rays or hearing tests. Some birth defects are

Cleft lip and cleft palate: Cleft lip and cleft palate are birth defects in a baby’s lip and mouth. Usually, babies can have surgery to repair cleft lip or cleft palate. They may need more surgery, special dental care and speech therapy as they get older. Speech therapy is therapy to teach your child how to speak more clearly or communicate in other ways.

Clubfoot: Clubfoot is a birth defect of the foot. It’s when a baby’s foot turns inward so that the bottom of the foot faces sideways or even up. Clubfoot doesn’t improve without treatment. Treatment may include pointing, stretching, casting the foot and using braces. With early treatment, most children with clubfoot can walk, run and play without pain.

Congenital heart defects (CHDs): These are heart conditions that a baby is born with. They can affect the heart’s shape or how it works or both. CHDs are the most common types of birth defects. They can be mild or serious. Critical congenital heart defects (also called critical CHDs or critical congenital heart disease) are the most serious CHDs. Babies with critical CHDs need surgery or other treatment within the first year of life. Without treatment, critical CHDs can cause serious health problems and death.

Gastroschisis: This is a birth defect of the abdominal (belly) wall. A baby is born with his intestines, and sometimes other organs, outside of the body. Gastroschisis happens when the muscles that make up the abdominal wall don’t connect properly, forming a hole beside the belly button. A baby with gastroschisis needs surgery soon after birth to put his organs back in place and repair the hole.

Hearing loss: This is a common birth defect that can affect a baby’s ability to develop speech, language and social skills. Hearing loss can happen when any part of the ear isn’t working in the usual way. Treatment depends on the cause of the hearing loss and whether hearing loss is mild or severe. Some babies with hearing loss may need hearing aids, medicine, surgery or speech therapy.

Microcephaly: Microcephaly is when a baby’s head is smaller than expected, compared to babies of the same sex and age. Babies with mild microcephaly often don’t have problems other than small head size. A baby with severe microcephaly has a head that’s much smaller than expected and may have more serious health problems. Severe microcephaly can happen if a baby’s brain doesn’t develop properly during pregnancy or if the brain starts to develop correctly but is damaged during pregnancy. Babies with severe microcephaly may need special care and treatment, like surgery. Some need medicines to treat seizures or other health problems.

Neural tube defects (NTDs): NTDs are birth defects of the brain, spine (backbone) and spinal cord. The spinal cord carries signals back and forth between your body and your brain. The most common NTD is spina bifida. Spina bifida happens when the spinal cord or bones in the spine don’t form correctly, leaving a gap or opening. Spina bifida can cause serious health problems for babies, like fluid on the brain and being paralyzed. Babies with spina bifida may need surgery or other special treatments.

Causes:

Birth defects can occur during any stage of pregnancy. Most birth defects occur in the first 3 months of pregnancy, when the organs of the baby are forming. This is a very important stage of development. However, some birth defects occur later in pregnancy. During the last six months of pregnancy, the tissues and organs continue to grow and develop.

For some birth defects, like fetal alcohol syndrome, we know the cause. But for most birth defects, we don’t know what causes them. For most birth defects, we think they are caused by a complex mix of factors. These factors include our genes (information inherited from our parents), our behaviours, and things in the environment. But, we don’t fully understand how these factors might work together to cause birth defects.

While we still have more work to do, we have learned a lot about birth defects through past research. For example, some things might increase the chances of having a baby with a birth defect, such as:

  • Smoking, drinking alcohol, or taking certain drugs during pregnancy.
  • Having certain medical conditions, such as being obese or having uncontrolled diabetes before and during pregnancy.
  • Taking certain medications which are not prescribed by your health care provider.
  • Having someone in your family with a birth defect. To learn more about your risk of having a baby with a birth defect, you can talk to your health care provider. 
  • Having an elevated body temperature due to heat exposure.
  • Being an older mother, as the risk of chromosomal abnormalities increases with age.

Having one or more of these risks doesn’t mean you’ll have a pregnancy affected by a birth defect. Also, women can have a baby born with a birth defect even when they don’t have any of these risks. It is important to talk to your health care provider about what you can do to lower your risk.

Prevention:

Not all birth defects can be prevented. But, there are things that a woman can do before and during pregnancy to increase her chance of having a healthy baby:

  • Be sure to see your healthcare provider regularly and start prenatal care as soon as you think you might be pregnant.
  • Get 400 micrograms (mcg) of folic acid every day, starting at least one month before getting pregnant.
  • Don’t drink alcohol or smoke.
  • Talk to a healthcare provider about any medications you are taking or thinking about taking. This includes prescription and over-the-counter medications and dietary or herbal supplements. Don’t stop or start taking any type of medication without first talking with a doctor.
  • Know how to prevent infections during pregnancy.
  • Be proactive in identifying and treating fever when ill or after getting a vaccine. Avoid hot tubs, saunas, or other environments that might cause overheating.
  • If possible, be sure any medical conditions are under control, before becoming pregnant. Some conditions, such as diabetes, can increase the risk for birth defects.

 

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Birth defects are structural changes present at birth that can affect almost any part or parts of the body (e.g., heart, brain, foot). They may affect how the body looks, works, or both. Birth defects can vary from mild to severe. The well-being of each child affected with a birth defect depends mostly on which organ or body part is involved and how much it is affected.

How to Identify Birth Defects?

A birth defect can be found before birth, at birth, or any time after birth. Most birth defects are found within the first year of life. Some birth defects (such as cleft lip) are easy to see, but others (such as heart defects or hearing loss) are found using special tests, such as echocardiograms (an ultrasound picture of the heart), x-rays or hearing tests. Some birth defects are

Cleft lip and cleft palate: Cleft lip and cleft palate are birth defects in a baby’s lip and mouth. Usually, babies can have surgery to repair cleft lip or cleft palate. They may need more surgery, special dental care and speech therapy as they get older. Speech therapy is therapy to teach your child how to speak more clearly or communicate in other ways.

Clubfoot: Clubfoot is a birth defect of the foot. It’s when a baby’s foot turns inward so that the bottom of the foot faces sideways or even up. Clubfoot doesn’t improve without treatment. Treatment may include pointing, stretching, casting the foot and using braces. With early treatment, most children with clubfoot can walk, run and play without pain.

Congenital heart defects (CHDs): These are heart conditions that a baby is born with. They can affect the heart’s shape or how it works or both. CHDs are the most common types of birth defects. They can be mild or serious. Critical congenital heart defects (also called critical CHDs or critical congenital heart disease) are the most serious CHDs. Babies with critical CHDs need surgery or other treatment within the first year of life. Without treatment, critical CHDs can cause serious health problems and death.

Gastroschisis: This is a birth defect of the abdominal (belly) wall. A baby is born with his intestines, and sometimes other organs, outside of the body. Gastroschisis happens when the muscles that make up the abdominal wall don’t connect properly, forming a hole beside the belly button. A baby with gastroschisis needs surgery soon after birth to put his organs back in place and repair the hole.

Hearing loss: This is a common birth defect that can affect a baby’s ability to develop speech, language and social skills. Hearing loss can happen when any part of the ear isn’t working in the usual way. Treatment depends on the cause of the hearing loss and whether hearing loss is mild or severe. Some babies with hearing loss may need hearing aids, medicine, surgery or speech therapy.

Microcephaly: Microcephaly is when a baby’s head is smaller than expected, compared to babies of the same sex and age. Babies with mild microcephaly often don’t have problems other than small head size. A baby with severe microcephaly has a head that’s much smaller than expected and may have more serious health problems. Severe microcephaly can happen if a baby’s brain doesn’t develop properly during pregnancy or if the brain starts to develop correctly but is damaged during pregnancy. Babies with severe microcephaly may need special care and treatment, like surgery. Some need medicines to treat seizures or other health problems.

Neural tube defects (NTDs): NTDs are birth defects of the brain, spine (backbone) and spinal cord. The spinal cord carries signals back and forth between your body and your brain. The most common NTD is spina bifida. Spina bifida happens when the spinal cord or bones in the spine don’t form correctly, leaving a gap or opening. Spina bifida can cause serious health problems for babies, like fluid on the brain and being paralyzed. Babies with spina bifida may need surgery or other special treatments.

Causes:

Birth defects can occur during any stage of pregnancy. Most birth defects occur in the first 3 months of pregnancy, when the organs of the baby are forming. This is a very important stage of development. However, some birth defects occur later in pregnancy. During the last six months of pregnancy, the tissues and organs continue to grow and develop.

For some birth defects, like fetal alcohol syndrome, we know the cause. But for most birth defects, we don’t know what causes them. For most birth defects, we think they are caused by a complex mix of factors. These factors include our genes (information inherited from our parents), our behaviours, and things in the environment. But, we don’t fully understand how these factors might work together to cause birth defects.

While we still have more work to do, we have learned a lot about birth defects through past research. For example, some things might increase the chances of having a baby with a birth defect, such as:

  • Smoking, drinking alcohol, or taking certain drugs during pregnancy.
  • Having certain medical conditions, such as being obese or having uncontrolled diabetes before and during pregnancy.
  • Taking certain medications which are not prescribed by your health care provider.
  • Having someone in your family with a birth defect. To learn more about your risk of having a baby with a birth defect, you can talk to your health care provider. 
  • Having an elevated body temperature due to heat exposure.
  • Being an older mother, as the risk of chromosomal abnormalities increases with age.

Having one or more of these risks doesn’t mean you’ll have a pregnancy affected by a birth defect. Also, women can have a baby born with a birth defect even when they don’t have any of these risks. It is important to talk to your health care provider about what you can do to lower your risk.

Prevention:

Not all birth defects can be prevented. But, there are things that a woman can do before and during pregnancy to increase her chance of having a healthy baby:

  • Be sure to see your healthcare provider regularly and start prenatal care as soon as you think you might be pregnant.
  • Get 400 micrograms (mcg) of folic acid every day, starting at least one month before getting pregnant.
  • Don’t drink alcohol or smoke.
  • Talk to a healthcare provider about any medications you are taking or thinking about taking. This includes prescription and over-the-counter medications and dietary or herbal supplements. Don’t stop or start taking any type of medication without first talking with a doctor.
  • Know how to prevent infections during pregnancy.
  • Be proactive in identifying and treating fever when ill or after getting a vaccine. Avoid hot tubs, saunas, or other environments that might cause overheating.
  • If possible, be sure any medical conditions are under control, before becoming pregnant. Some conditions, such as diabetes, can increase the risk for birth defects.

 

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CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF BIRTH DEFECTS

CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF BIRTH DEFECTS

December 30, 2022

Birth defects are structural changes present at birth that can affec...

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Every mother hopes for a pregnancy that is smooth-sailing and free from complications. With the right care, a smooth pregnancy is, of course, possible. However, at times, babies may be born prematurely, with a serious condition, or become critically ill post-delivery. At times like these, a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) comes to the rescue. As the primary treatment centre for newborns, this unit plays an essential role in post-delivery. Therefore, learning all about a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) can help parents be better prepared during the time that their child will be admitted.

Levels of NICU

A NICU usually comes with trained nurses, dietitians, doctors, and neonatal specialists that deal with newborn care. But not every  Neonatal Intensive Care Unit is created the same. Different hospitals come with different levels of a NICU. In India, a NICU follows a 4-level system. Let’s take a look at each of these levels.

Level I

This is the most basic level of neonatal intensive care. This unit can render neonatal resuscitation, provide treatment to newborn babies, stabilise and provide care to infants born between the 35th and 37th gestational week, and treat babies born with illnesses at less than 35 gestational weeks. At times, this unit will mostly act as an interim arrangement until the baby is transferred to another facility that has the requisite level of care. This level usually consists of nurses, general physicians, paediatrics, and other medical specialists.

Level II

This unit primarily provides assisted ventilation and continuous positive airway pressure. This level comes with the capability to resuscitate and stabilise pre-term and ill infants before being transferred to a facility where newborn intensive care is provided. This unit can provide care for infants born at greater than 30 weeks gestation and weighing lesser than 1500 g who show signs of:

  • Physiologic immaturity such as inability to maintain body temperature, apnea of prematurity, or inability to take oral feedings
  • Being moderately unwell with problems that are anticipated to resolve rapidly and are not anticipated to need sub specialty services on an urgent basis.

They can also provide care to babies who are convalescing after intensive care. Some units also come with the additional capability to provide mechanical ventilation for brief duration.

Level III

The Level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit takes care of neonates that weigh less than 1200 grams or display a gestational maturity of fewer than 30 weeks. A wide range of facilities is available in this unit, like infusion pumps, oxygen masks, suction facilities, incubators, ventilators, TC monitors, vital stats monitors, etc. The unit comes with a full-time availability of nurses too.

Level IV

This is the highest standard of neonatal care, consisting of pediatric specialists, along with all the expert care providers and the specialised services of a Level III NICU. It also offers facilities like extra corporeal membrane oxygenation and transport services from hospital to home. Usually, a level IV NICU is a part of a large hospital with expertise in surgical repair of serious congenital or acquired conditions.

The different levels of a NICU come well-equipped to handle any problems and issues that may arise post-delivery. Knowing the offerings of the above levels can help you better decide the hospital for delivering your baby. Enquire with the top hospitals near you to ensure that your baby will be in the right hands after the delivery.

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Every mother hopes for a pregnancy that is smooth-sailing and free from complications. With the right care, a smooth pregnancy is, of course, possible. However, at times, babies may be born prematurely, with a serious condition, or become critically ill post-delivery. At times like these, a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) comes to the rescue. As the primary treatment centre for newborns, this unit plays an essential role in post-delivery. Therefore, learning all about a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) can help parents be better prepared during the time that their child will be admitted.

Levels of NICU

A NICU usually comes with trained nurses, dietitians, doctors, and neonatal specialists that deal with newborn care. But not every  Neonatal Intensive Care Unit is created the same. Different hospitals come with different levels of a NICU. In India, a NICU follows a 4-level system. Let’s take a look at each of these levels.

Level I

This is the most basic level of neonatal intensive care. This unit can render neonatal resuscitation, provide treatment to newborn babies, stabilise and provide care to infants born between the 35th and 37th gestational week, and treat babies born with illnesses at less than 35 gestational weeks. At times, this unit will mostly act as an interim arrangement until the baby is transferred to another facility that has the requisite level of care. This level usually consists of nurses, general physicians, paediatrics, and other medical specialists.

Level II

This unit primarily provides assisted ventilation and continuous positive airway pressure. This level comes with the capability to resuscitate and stabilise pre-term and ill infants before being transferred to a facility where newborn intensive care is provided. This unit can provide care for infants born at greater than 30 weeks gestation and weighing lesser than 1500 g who show signs of:

  • Physiologic immaturity such as inability to maintain body temperature, apnea of prematurity, or inability to take oral feedings
  • Being moderately unwell with problems that are anticipated to resolve rapidly and are not anticipated to need sub specialty services on an urgent basis.

They can also provide care to babies who are convalescing after intensive care. Some units also come with the additional capability to provide mechanical ventilation for brief duration.

Level III

The Level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit takes care of neonates that weigh less than 1200 grams or display a gestational maturity of fewer than 30 weeks. A wide range of facilities is available in this unit, like infusion pumps, oxygen masks, suction facilities, incubators, ventilators, TC monitors, vital stats monitors, etc. The unit comes with a full-time availability of nurses too.

Level IV

This is the highest standard of neonatal care, consisting of pediatric specialists, along with all the expert care providers and the specialised services of a Level III NICU. It also offers facilities like extra corporeal membrane oxygenation and transport services from hospital to home. Usually, a level IV NICU is a part of a large hospital with expertise in surgical repair of serious congenital or acquired conditions.

The different levels of a NICU come well-equipped to handle any problems and issues that may arise post-delivery. Knowing the offerings of the above levels can help you better decide the hospital for delivering your baby. Enquire with the top hospitals near you to ensure that your baby will be in the right hands after the delivery.

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NICU and its levels of neonatal care

NICU and its levels of neonatal care

September 14, 2022

Every mother hopes for a pregnancy that is smooth-sailing and free f...

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SAFETY FIRST

The Importance of Newborn Screening Test

At Apollo Cradle and Children’s Hospital, we provide newborn screening for certain conditions and disorders that may become a hindrance to a baby’s normal development. Typically, the screening is performed before babies leave the hospital i.e soon after their birth. The conditions tested in newborn screening can cause serious health issues in infancy or childhood. Detecting these conditions early and treating them can help prevent life-threatening illnesses and physical and intellectual disabilities.

New-born screening is extremely important and we at Apollo Cradle and Children’s Hospital want to raise awareness regarding the same. With the screening test, we can identify and diagnose at-risk infants. Early identification and diagnosis allow for early medical intervention, which helps in preventing and significantly reducing the mortality and morbidity associated with the said disorders.

What Is the Newborn Screening Test Program?

New-born screening is a preventive healthcare program and it is essential for testing babies at birth. The newborn screening program at Apollo Cradle and Children’s Hospital includes more than 44 serious disorders that may be uncommon. IEM or Inborn Errors of Metabolism can cause certain conditions like physical disability, brain damage and even potentially death if not diagnosed and treated beforehand.

Since the tests are performed before there are any observable symptoms on the baby, newborn screening allows conditions to be identified and treated before the occurrence of the problem. It is worth noting that a screening test doesn’t confirm or rule out any specific condition. Hence, it isn’t diagnostic testing. The test simply identifies babies who may have the said condition, allowing follow-up tests and diagnosis to be performed for determining if the condition is actually present.

What is IEM (Inborn Errors of Metabolism)?

Inborn Errors of Metabolism are disorders that are usually caused by the natural chemicals produced by the body that get abnormally accumulated. There are various ways through which the symptoms of the disorder may manifest, from brain damage to slow physical development. In some rare cases, the disorder can even lead to death. The unfortunate aspect is that most infants do not show any signs of these disorders at birth, even if they have the condition. New-born Screening allows these conditions to be detected at birth, allowing the child to potentially lead a normal and healthy life.

The test simply requires a few drops of blood, which is collected on a special filter paper by pricking the heel of the baby. After allowing the paper to dry, it is sent to the laboratory, where numerous different newborn screening tests are performed. The technology used for performing these tests is known as Tandem Mass Spectrometry. There is no harm done to the baby due to the heel prick. A specialized needle known as lancet is available in every collection kit and a fresh lancet is used for each baby. Hence, there is no risk of any infection.

Parents who have previously had healthy babies or have no family history of any disorder of such type may still have babies born with these disorders. As a matter of fact, most children having these disorders do not have any previous history of the condition in their family.

In most cases, the babies born with the disorder appear and behave completely normal and appear to be totally healthy. With the newborn screening test, your doctor can catch a problem with your baby before it causes any major concern. In general, a baby that is diagnosed early and treated accordingly leads a healthy life. The chances of a good prognosis are higher if the disorder is detected earlier.

What Kind of Disorders Can Be Identified Through Newborn Screening?

The newborn screening tests performed at Apollo Cradle and Children’s Hospital checks for more than 44 metabolic disorders in babies. A small blood sample is collected for performing the test. These are some serious disorders present in individuals at birth itself. Some of these disorders are caused due to chemical imbalance which some may be passed on from parents. These conditions can have an effect on children quite early, even within a few weeks or even days of birth. Hence, it is absolutely necessary to identify these disorders in babies as soon as possible.

What Are the Chances of Your Baby Having These Disorders?

In developed countries, the infant mortality rate is approximately 5-10 babies in every 1000 new-borns. The infant mortality rate in India is almost 10 times more than that of developed countries. Hence, for a baby born in India, there is a higher chance of death within a year or two of birth. In the healthcare field, experts are in agreement that around 10-20% of such early deaths in the country can be prevented with early screening.

How Is the Treatment of These Disorders Done?

Most of the conditions screened in newborns are treatable if early diagnosis is performed. Early detection and treatment allow mitigation of the symptoms and effects of the conditions. A lot of the disorders have a treatment as simple as controlling the diet of the baby.

When to Register for the Screening?

Generally, it is advisable to get registered for newborn screening test during the course of your pregnancy itself. You can get your screening kit at any time. Even if you miss early registration, it can be done immediately after delivery.

When Is the Screening Done?

The screening is performed usually when the baby is 48 hours to 13 days old. It is even possible for older babies to be screened up to the age of 2. However, it is always more beneficial if the screening is done as early as possible.

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SAFETY FIRST

The Importance of Newborn Screening Test

At Apollo Cradle and Children’s Hospital, we provide newborn screening for certain conditions and disorders that may become a hindrance to a baby’s normal development. Typically, the screening is performed before babies leave the hospital i.e soon after their birth. The conditions tested in newborn screening can cause serious health issues in infancy or childhood. Detecting these conditions early and treating them can help prevent life-threatening illnesses and physical and intellectual disabilities.

New-born screening is extremely important and we at Apollo Cradle and Children’s Hospital want to raise awareness regarding the same. With the screening test, we can identify and diagnose at-risk infants. Early identification and diagnosis allow for early medical intervention, which helps in preventing and significantly reducing the mortality and morbidity associated with the said disorders.

What Is the Newborn Screening Test Program?

New-born screening is a preventive healthcare program and it is essential for testing babies at birth. The newborn screening program at Apollo Cradle and Children’s Hospital includes more than 44 serious disorders that may be uncommon. IEM or Inborn Errors of Metabolism can cause certain conditions like physical disability, brain damage and even potentially death if not diagnosed and treated beforehand.

Since the tests are performed before there are any observable symptoms on the baby, newborn screening allows conditions to be identified and treated before the occurrence of the problem. It is worth noting that a screening test doesn’t confirm or rule out any specific condition. Hence, it isn’t diagnostic testing. The test simply identifies babies who may have the said condition, allowing follow-up tests and diagnosis to be performed for determining if the condition is actually present.

What is IEM (Inborn Errors of Metabolism)?

Inborn Errors of Metabolism are disorders that are usually caused by the natural chemicals produced by the body that get abnormally accumulated. There are various ways through which the symptoms of the disorder may manifest, from brain damage to slow physical development. In some rare cases, the disorder can even lead to death. The unfortunate aspect is that most infants do not show any signs of these disorders at birth, even if they have the condition. New-born Screening allows these conditions to be detected at birth, allowing the child to potentially lead a normal and healthy life.

The test simply requires a few drops of blood, which is collected on a special filter paper by pricking the heel of the baby. After allowing the paper to dry, it is sent to the laboratory, where numerous different newborn screening tests are performed. The technology used for performing these tests is known as Tandem Mass Spectrometry. There is no harm done to the baby due to the heel prick. A specialized needle known as lancet is available in every collection kit and a fresh lancet is used for each baby. Hence, there is no risk of any infection.

Parents who have previously had healthy babies or have no family history of any disorder of such type may still have babies born with these disorders. As a matter of fact, most children having these disorders do not have any previous history of the condition in their family.

In most cases, the babies born with the disorder appear and behave completely normal and appear to be totally healthy. With the newborn screening test, your doctor can catch a problem with your baby before it causes any major concern. In general, a baby that is diagnosed early and treated accordingly leads a healthy life. The chances of a good prognosis are higher if the disorder is detected earlier.

What Kind of Disorders Can Be Identified Through Newborn Screening?

The newborn screening tests performed at Apollo Cradle and Children’s Hospital checks for more than 44 metabolic disorders in babies. A small blood sample is collected for performing the test. These are some serious disorders present in individuals at birth itself. Some of these disorders are caused due to chemical imbalance which some may be passed on from parents. These conditions can have an effect on children quite early, even within a few weeks or even days of birth. Hence, it is absolutely necessary to identify these disorders in babies as soon as possible.

What Are the Chances of Your Baby Having These Disorders?

In developed countries, the infant mortality rate is approximately 5-10 babies in every 1000 new-borns. The infant mortality rate in India is almost 10 times more than that of developed countries. Hence, for a baby born in India, there is a higher chance of death within a year or two of birth. In the healthcare field, experts are in agreement that around 10-20% of such early deaths in the country can be prevented with early screening.

How Is the Treatment of These Disorders Done?

Most of the conditions screened in newborns are treatable if early diagnosis is performed. Early detection and treatment allow mitigation of the symptoms and effects of the conditions. A lot of the disorders have a treatment as simple as controlling the diet of the baby.

When to Register for the Screening?

Generally, it is advisable to get registered for newborn screening test during the course of your pregnancy itself. You can get your screening kit at any time. Even if you miss early registration, it can be done immediately after delivery.

When Is the Screening Done?

The screening is performed usually when the baby is 48 hours to 13 days old. It is even possible for older babies to be screened up to the age of 2. However, it is always more beneficial if the screening is done as early as possible.

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Newborn Screening Test

Newborn Screening Test

December 19, 2021

SAFETY FIRST ...

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Childbirth is a delicate procedure due to the numerous physical changes that babies go through as they adjust to life outside the womb. Some babies have difficulty making these adjustments. This is more likely if they are born prematurely (before 37 weeks), have a low birth weight, or are suffering from a condition that requires immediate medical attention. That’s why you have to know more about the advantages of the NICU for a newborn.

When newborn require specialized care following birth, they are frequently admitted to a hospital’s neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). There is a level of NICU called Level III NICU. As a result, knowing everything there is to know about a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) can assist parents in preparing for their child’s admission. Continue reading to know some of the unexpected advantages of the NICU experience.

Apollo Cradle Has the Best Team of Highly Qualified Gynaecologists

Consult our Doctors
 

Advantages of the NICU Experience

1. Your Baby Will Be Cared for by the Best People

Babies in the NICU are cared for by compassionate, knowledgeable doctors, advanced practice providers, and nurses. These providers are available 24 hours a day, seven days a week if you have any questions about your baby’s condition or care. Dietitians and physical therapists are also involved in ensuring the best possible care for the newly born child. There are no more capable of caring people to look after your baby. So you can feel relieved about their well-being even when you are not present.

2. Maternal Services Are Easily Accessible to New Mothers

New mothers can also easily access a variety of services. Lactation consultants, for example, are nearby and always willing to help new mothers with breastfeeding tips and extra supplies. Consultants emphasize the importance of immediate skin-to-skin contact after birth to stimulate milk production, whereas exhaustion can inhibit milk production.

3. Parents Can Take Time to Recover and Care For Themselves

It is critical for parents of newborn, especially those in the NICU, to look after themselves as well as the baby. We understand that you want to spend as much time as possible bonding with your newborn, but you also need to rest and recover.

Remember that newborn are cared for 24 hours a day, seven days a week in the neonatal care unit. Take advantage of this time if you have another child at home or simply need some alone time. There will be no judgement, and it can help you reset and feel more energetic. If you choose to spend the night in the NICU, you will most likely be in comfortable surroundings.

4. Older Siblings Can Adjust to the New Baby

Many young kids can have certain reservations about a family member. This extra time, no matter how brief, allows them to become acquainted with their new sibling. Many facilities have 24-hour video surveillance so that the family can keep an eye on the new arrival from home. Once the baby is born, this helps siblings feel more a part of this significant life event.

5. The Baby Will Most Likely Have a Set Eating and Sleeping Schedule

The infant is on a strict feeding and sleeping schedule while in the NICU. When they return home from the hospital, that schedule is already in place, making the transition easier for everyone.

It’s natural to be worried about your baby while they’re in neonatal care. Know that your child is in good hands and that the staff is doing everything possible to improve their outlook. Don’t be afraid to voice your concerns or ask questions about the procedures being carried out. Also, if you’re looking for a reputable neonatal care hospital in the area, search for ‘best hospital in Bangalore or any other city,’ and you’ll get the best results.

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Childbirth is a delicate procedure due to the numerous physical changes that babies go through as they adjust to life outside the womb. Some babies have difficulty making these adjustments. This is more likely if they are born prematurely (before 37 weeks), have a low birth weight, or are suffering from a condition that requires immediate medical attention. That’s why you have to know more about the advantages of the NICU for a newborn.

When newborn require specialized care following birth, they are frequently admitted to a hospital’s neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). There is a level of NICU called Level III NICU. As a result, knowing everything there is to know about a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) can assist parents in preparing for their child’s admission. Continue reading to know some of the unexpected advantages of the NICU experience.

Apollo Cradle Has the Best Team of Highly Qualified Gynaecologists

Consult our Doctors
 

Advantages of the NICU Experience

1. Your Baby Will Be Cared for by the Best People

Babies in the NICU are cared for by compassionate, knowledgeable doctors, advanced practice providers, and nurses. These providers are available 24 hours a day, seven days a week if you have any questions about your baby’s condition or care. Dietitians and physical therapists are also involved in ensuring the best possible care for the newly born child. There are no more capable of caring people to look after your baby. So you can feel relieved about their well-being even when you are not present.

2. Maternal Services Are Easily Accessible to New Mothers

New mothers can also easily access a variety of services. Lactation consultants, for example, are nearby and always willing to help new mothers with breastfeeding tips and extra supplies. Consultants emphasize the importance of immediate skin-to-skin contact after birth to stimulate milk production, whereas exhaustion can inhibit milk production.

3. Parents Can Take Time to Recover and Care For Themselves

It is critical for parents of newborn, especially those in the NICU, to look after themselves as well as the baby. We understand that you want to spend as much time as possible bonding with your newborn, but you also need to rest and recover.

Remember that newborn are cared for 24 hours a day, seven days a week in the neonatal care unit. Take advantage of this time if you have another child at home or simply need some alone time. There will be no judgement, and it can help you reset and feel more energetic. If you choose to spend the night in the NICU, you will most likely be in comfortable surroundings.

4. Older Siblings Can Adjust to the New Baby

Many young kids can have certain reservations about a family member. This extra time, no matter how brief, allows them to become acquainted with their new sibling. Many facilities have 24-hour video surveillance so that the family can keep an eye on the new arrival from home. Once the baby is born, this helps siblings feel more a part of this significant life event.

5. The Baby Will Most Likely Have a Set Eating and Sleeping Schedule

The infant is on a strict feeding and sleeping schedule while in the NICU. When they return home from the hospital, that schedule is already in place, making the transition easier for everyone.

It’s natural to be worried about your baby while they’re in neonatal care. Know that your child is in good hands and that the staff is doing everything possible to improve their outlook. Don’t be afraid to voice your concerns or ask questions about the procedures being carried out. Also, if you’re looking for a reputable neonatal care hospital in the area, search for ‘best hospital in Bangalore or any other city,’ and you’ll get the best results.

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Advantages of Having a Baby in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU)

Advantages of Having a Baby in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU)

December 2, 2020

Childbirth is a delicate procedure due to the numerous physical chan...

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Does Your Baby Need Neonatal Care? this is a very crucial question nowadays.

As wonderful as it seems, giving birth can also be a complex process, since there are many physical and emotional changes that are observed in both the mother and the baby. It is crucial that the baby undergoes several physical adjustments to life once it is outside the mother’s body. Once the baby is out of the womb, they cannot sustain on their mother’s blood supply and placenta for their body functions.

When the baby is in the womb, they depend on their mother for all their bodily functions, including breathing, eating, elimination of waste, and immune protection. As soon as the baby leaves the womb, the organs must start functioning. For instance, the lungs must start respiration, the cardiac and pulmonary circulation must change, the digestive system must begin to process food and excrete waste, while the kidneys must begin working to balance fluids & chemicals in the body and excrete waste.

The new-born baby’s body needs to get the systems to function properly, in a new way, in order to survive. Naturally, some babies might have some trouble in making this transition to the outside world. A preterm birth, difficult birth, or any birth defects can make it difficult for the baby to undergo these changes, which is why a lot of special care is available to help new-born babies with these changes.

What Is the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU)?

New-borns who might be in need of intensive medical care are put in an area of the hospital which is called the neonatal intensive care unit or the NICU. The NICU is equipped with advanced technology and trained healthcare professionals that can provide special care for these new-born babies. Sometimes NICUs can also include care for babies who are not very sick and need specialized nursing care. While some hospitals don’t have the resources or staff for NICU, and the babies are required to be moved to another hospital, babies with intensive care needs do better if they are born in a Neonatal Care Hospital.

Which Babies Need Special Care?

 Here are a few factors pertaining to the mother that can indicate that the baby might need special neonatal care:

  • If the mother is below the age of 16 or above the age of 40
  • If she continues drug or alcohol use during pregnancy
  • If the mother has diabetes or high BP
  • If the mother deals with any STDs or Sexually transmitted diseases
  • If there are multiple pregnancies, (such as twins or triplets)
  • If there are unusual amounts of amniotic fluid
  • If there is a premature rupture of membranes

The presence of the following factors during delivery means that neonatal care could be vital:

  • If there are changes in the new-born’s organ systems owing to the lack of oxygen
  • If the baby is delivered buttocks-first, or in any other unconventional position
  • If the baby’s first stool is passed during pregnancy into the amniotic fluid
  • If the umbilical cord is wrapped around the baby’s neck
  • If there was a forceps or caesarean delivery

The following factors in the new-born indicate that they’ll need special care:

  • If the baby is born at gestational age of less than 37 weeks or more than 42 weeks
  • If the birth weight of the baby is less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces (2,500 grams) or over 8 pounds, 13 ounces (4,000 grams)
  • If the baby is too small for gestational age
  • If there was a use of medicine or resuscitation in the delivery room
  • If the baby has any birth defects
  • If the baby has any respiratory distress including rapid breathing, grunting, or stopping breathing, or infection such as herpes, group B streptococcus, chlamydia
  • If the baby has seizures
  • If the baby has low blood sugar
  • If there is a need for extra oxygen or monitoring, IV therapy, or medicines
  • If there is a need for special treatment or procedures such as a blood transfusion

 

Most babies admitted to the NICU are either born 37 weeks before pregnancy, have low birth weight of lesser than 5.5 pounds, or have a health condition that needs special care.  Twins, triplets, and other multiples are also often admitted to the NICU, because they tend to be born earlier and smaller than single birth babies. Therefore baby need neonatal care. For information about neonatal care, get in touch with a paediatrician today.

 

 

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Does Your Baby Need Neonatal Care? this is a very crucial question nowadays.

As wonderful as it seems, giving birth can also be a complex process, since there are many physical and emotional changes that are observed in both the mother and the baby. It is crucial that the baby undergoes several physical adjustments to life once it is outside the mother’s body. Once the baby is out of the womb, they cannot sustain on their mother’s blood supply and placenta for their body functions.

When the baby is in the womb, they depend on their mother for all their bodily functions, including breathing, eating, elimination of waste, and immune protection. As soon as the baby leaves the womb, the organs must start functioning. For instance, the lungs must start respiration, the cardiac and pulmonary circulation must change, the digestive system must begin to process food and excrete waste, while the kidneys must begin working to balance fluids & chemicals in the body and excrete waste.

The new-born baby’s body needs to get the systems to function properly, in a new way, in order to survive. Naturally, some babies might have some trouble in making this transition to the outside world. A preterm birth, difficult birth, or any birth defects can make it difficult for the baby to undergo these changes, which is why a lot of special care is available to help new-born babies with these changes.

What Is the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU)?

New-borns who might be in need of intensive medical care are put in an area of the hospital which is called the neonatal intensive care unit or the NICU. The NICU is equipped with advanced technology and trained healthcare professionals that can provide special care for these new-born babies. Sometimes NICUs can also include care for babies who are not very sick and need specialized nursing care. While some hospitals don’t have the resources or staff for NICU, and the babies are required to be moved to another hospital, babies with intensive care needs do better if they are born in a Neonatal Care Hospital.

Which Babies Need Special Care?

 Here are a few factors pertaining to the mother that can indicate that the baby might need special neonatal care:

  • If the mother is below the age of 16 or above the age of 40
  • If she continues drug or alcohol use during pregnancy
  • If the mother has diabetes or high BP
  • If the mother deals with any STDs or Sexually transmitted diseases
  • If there are multiple pregnancies, (such as twins or triplets)
  • If there are unusual amounts of amniotic fluid
  • If there is a premature rupture of membranes

The presence of the following factors during delivery means that neonatal care could be vital:

  • If there are changes in the new-born’s organ systems owing to the lack of oxygen
  • If the baby is delivered buttocks-first, or in any other unconventional position
  • If the baby’s first stool is passed during pregnancy into the amniotic fluid
  • If the umbilical cord is wrapped around the baby’s neck
  • If there was a forceps or caesarean delivery

The following factors in the new-born indicate that they’ll need special care:

  • If the baby is born at gestational age of less than 37 weeks or more than 42 weeks
  • If the birth weight of the baby is less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces (2,500 grams) or over 8 pounds, 13 ounces (4,000 grams)
  • If the baby is too small for gestational age
  • If there was a use of medicine or resuscitation in the delivery room
  • If the baby has any birth defects
  • If the baby has any respiratory distress including rapid breathing, grunting, or stopping breathing, or infection such as herpes, group B streptococcus, chlamydia
  • If the baby has seizures
  • If the baby has low blood sugar
  • If there is a need for extra oxygen or monitoring, IV therapy, or medicines
  • If there is a need for special treatment or procedures such as a blood transfusion

 

Most babies admitted to the NICU are either born 37 weeks before pregnancy, have low birth weight of lesser than 5.5 pounds, or have a health condition that needs special care.  Twins, triplets, and other multiples are also often admitted to the NICU, because they tend to be born earlier and smaller than single birth babies. Therefore baby need neonatal care. For information about neonatal care, get in touch with a paediatrician today.

 

 

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Does Your Baby Need Neonatal Care?

Does Your Baby Need Neonatal Care?

March 20, 2020

Does Your Baby Need Neonatal Care? this is a very crucial question n...

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Why is Prenatal Care important?

Prenatal care refers to the regular check-ups with your doctor during your pregnancy to ensure that the foetus is developing properly, and is healthy. These doctors, called obstetricians, specialize in female reproductive organs and pregnancy, and use various kinds of tests, including pap smears and ultrasounds, to keep a check on the baby’s growth inside you. Prenatal care helps treat any possible problems in the budding stage so that it does not cause any complications during or after the pregnancy.

A common question that arises among new mothers is ‘When to start prenatal care?’, and the answer is as soon as you find out that you are pregnant. This is an important step as it confirms the pregnancy. Some doctors even recommend prenatal care before the pregnancy which is known as pre-prenatal-care. An expecting mother should visit her doctor every 4 to 6 weeks in the first trimester and more frequently as the due date approaches. If it is a high-risk pregnancy, these medical consultations can be increased.

What does a prenatal exam include?

It usually includes a physical exam, urine test, and a weight test. According to the stage of the pregnancy and risk factor, blood tests and ultrasounds are also conducted.

Prenatal care reduces the risk of pregnancy complications. If you follow a healthy and a safe diet, take care of your body, and make sure you are relaxed and mentally at peace, chances of problems during your pregnancy are significantly lowered. In a prenatal session, the doctor will examine your health very carefully. Common underlying health problems, including hypertension, high blood pressure, and diabetes not only put your health at risk but also reduce the flow of blood to your placenta, reducing your baby’s oxygen supply and consequently, putting its life in danger. Regular check-ups will help your doctor detect these conditions, and monitor and treat them effectively. In prenatal care, the doctor also looks for diseases that can be passed on to the baby from the mother, such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) or hepatitis. As you enter your third and final trimester, your doctor may administer vaccinations to build your baby’s immunity to diseases. These vaccinations include the flu shot as well as vaccines for polio and the MMR ( Mumps, Measles, Rubella) vaccine.

Prenatal visits are important as they help the doctor look for and treat any potential birth defects. Common problems include issues with the essential organs such as kidneys, spine or heart. These can if detected early, potentially be treated in utero.

Prenatal care involves your doctor providing you guidance on the right diet for your pregnancy term, and prescribing you any nutritional supplements that may be required. Never self-prescribe anything during your pregnancy as it could have adverse effects on your and the baby’s health. Your doctor can also help clear any fears or doubts you may have regarding pregnancy or childbirth, and acts as a good sounding board for all your concerns.

Prenatal care, today, is not a recommendation, but a necessity.

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Why is Prenatal Care important?

Prenatal care refers to the regular check-ups with your doctor during your pregnancy to ensure that the foetus is developing properly, and is healthy. These doctors, called obstetricians, specialize in female reproductive organs and pregnancy, and use various kinds of tests, including pap smears and ultrasounds, to keep a check on the baby’s growth inside you. Prenatal care helps treat any possible problems in the budding stage so that it does not cause any complications during or after the pregnancy.

A common question that arises among new mothers is ‘When to start prenatal care?’, and the answer is as soon as you find out that you are pregnant. This is an important step as it confirms the pregnancy. Some doctors even recommend prenatal care before the pregnancy which is known as pre-prenatal-care. An expecting mother should visit her doctor every 4 to 6 weeks in the first trimester and more frequently as the due date approaches. If it is a high-risk pregnancy, these medical consultations can be increased.

What does a prenatal exam include?

It usually includes a physical exam, urine test, and a weight test. According to the stage of the pregnancy and risk factor, blood tests and ultrasounds are also conducted.

Prenatal care reduces the risk of pregnancy complications. If you follow a healthy and a safe diet, take care of your body, and make sure you are relaxed and mentally at peace, chances of problems during your pregnancy are significantly lowered. In a prenatal session, the doctor will examine your health very carefully. Common underlying health problems, including hypertension, high blood pressure, and diabetes not only put your health at risk but also reduce the flow of blood to your placenta, reducing your baby’s oxygen supply and consequently, putting its life in danger. Regular check-ups will help your doctor detect these conditions, and monitor and treat them effectively. In prenatal care, the doctor also looks for diseases that can be passed on to the baby from the mother, such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) or hepatitis. As you enter your third and final trimester, your doctor may administer vaccinations to build your baby’s immunity to diseases. These vaccinations include the flu shot as well as vaccines for polio and the MMR ( Mumps, Measles, Rubella) vaccine.

Prenatal visits are important as they help the doctor look for and treat any potential birth defects. Common problems include issues with the essential organs such as kidneys, spine or heart. These can if detected early, potentially be treated in utero.

Prenatal care involves your doctor providing you guidance on the right diet for your pregnancy term, and prescribing you any nutritional supplements that may be required. Never self-prescribe anything during your pregnancy as it could have adverse effects on your and the baby’s health. Your doctor can also help clear any fears or doubts you may have regarding pregnancy or childbirth, and acts as a good sounding board for all your concerns.

Prenatal care, today, is not a recommendation, but a necessity.

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Why is Prenatal Care important?

Why is Prenatal Care important?

April 17, 2019

Why is Prenatal Care important? Pr...

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            [blog_title] => Premature Baby and Three Phases in Preterm Birth
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A birth that occurs before the 37th week of pregnancy is called preterm pregnancy. A baby born in preterm is called a ‘premature baby’. Usually, a normal pregnancy term lasts for about 40 weeks. Medical advancement shows that 9 or more out of 10 premature babies survive and most go on to develop normally. Deficiencies faced by preterm babes are usually curable under the hands of a professionally trained expert.
 
Signs of a probable preterm delivery include vigorous uterine contractions or leaking of excess fluids through vagina.
Women who have had earlier premature births or have been pregnant with multiples are prone to preterm. Other physical disorders suffered by pregnant women might also lead to preterm births. Undue stress during pregnancy can also be a contributing factor.
Premature babies often need longer or more extensive care in the nursing home, medicines and even surgery.
Some symptoms for preterm birth
 
More often than never, premature babies face symptoms like infection of lungs (baby pneumonia), inflammation of brain layers (meningitis), sight problems like ROP (Retinopathy of Prematurity), poor feeding, difficulty in regulating temperature, hearing loss and slower weight gain. They may also have RDS (Respiratory distress syndrome) and slow heart rate causing a disorder called apnea. This is most common in babies born before 34 weeks of pregnancy. Many preterm births are accompanied by mental retardation and in some cases, cerebral palsy.
In case of mothers, preterm birth may also cause placental problems and infection.
 

In general, there are three phases in preterm birth:

  • Extremely preterm (less than 28 weeks)
  • Very preterm (28 to 32 weeks)
  • Moderate to late preterm (32 to 37 weeks)
As treatment for preterm birth, the mother is assisted medically to extend the pregnancy as far as possible.

Why is Premature Birth a Problem?

Nine months is the general duration of gestation or pregnancy. This is the minimum period that is required for a fetus to attain its full maturity and development within the mother’s womb. However, in case of preterm, the baby isn’t able to complete its full term and is hence less developed than another baby who is fully mature during delivery.
 
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A birth that occurs before the 37th week of pregnancy is called preterm pregnancy. A baby born in preterm is called a ‘premature baby’. Usually, a normal pregnancy term lasts for about 40 weeks. Medical advancement shows that 9 or more out of 10 premature babies survive and most go on to develop normally. Deficiencies faced by preterm babes are usually curable under the hands of a professionally trained expert.
 
Signs of a probable preterm delivery include vigorous uterine contractions or leaking of excess fluids through vagina.
Women who have had earlier premature births or have been pregnant with multiples are prone to preterm. Other physical disorders suffered by pregnant women might also lead to preterm births. Undue stress during pregnancy can also be a contributing factor.
Premature babies often need longer or more extensive care in the nursing home, medicines and even surgery.
Some symptoms for preterm birth
 
More often than never, premature babies face symptoms like infection of lungs (baby pneumonia), inflammation of brain layers (meningitis), sight problems like ROP (Retinopathy of Prematurity), poor feeding, difficulty in regulating temperature, hearing loss and slower weight gain. They may also have RDS (Respiratory distress syndrome) and slow heart rate causing a disorder called apnea. This is most common in babies born before 34 weeks of pregnancy. Many preterm births are accompanied by mental retardation and in some cases, cerebral palsy.
In case of mothers, preterm birth may also cause placental problems and infection.
 

In general, there are three phases in preterm birth:

  • Extremely preterm (less than 28 weeks)
  • Very preterm (28 to 32 weeks)
  • Moderate to late preterm (32 to 37 weeks)
As treatment for preterm birth, the mother is assisted medically to extend the pregnancy as far as possible.

Why is Premature Birth a Problem?

Nine months is the general duration of gestation or pregnancy. This is the minimum period that is required for a fetus to attain its full maturity and development within the mother’s womb. However, in case of preterm, the baby isn’t able to complete its full term and is hence less developed than another baby who is fully mature during delivery.
 
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Premature Baby and Three Phases in Preterm Birth

Premature Baby and Three Phases in Preterm Birth

September 29, 2018

A birth that occurs before the 37th wee...

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