New Born Care

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The birth of a baby can be life-changing as women go through a stream of intense physical, emotional and mental experiences during and after childbirth. Such a time of increased fear and anxiety leaves new mothers vulnerable to postpartum depression (PPD). A severe mental health illness, postpartum depression is a form of depression that affects women after childbirth. About 20-25% of first-time mothers in India experience PPD.

Postpartum depression involves feelings of extreme sadness, hopelessness, indifference, or anxiety and affects the new mother’s sleep, appetite, and energy. Due to the depression, new mothers fail to form a bond or attachment with their baby and end up blaming themselves for it. PPD can begin anytime during the first year after childbirth and can develop suddenly or gradually. By keeping an eye on the warning signs of postpartum depression, women can get diagnosed and get early help.

6 Early Warning Signs of Postpartum Depression (PPD)

Prolonged Baby Blues

Most new mothers experience baby blues following the birth of their baby, which include mood swings, anxiety, sadness, persistent tearfulness, reduced concentration, appetite problems and trouble sleeping. If these symptoms last longer than two weeks and interfere with the mother’s ability to perform daily tasks and bond with the baby, she may have postpartum depression. PPD is much more intense and threatening than baby blues and can last until a year after the baby’s birth. 

Pessimistic or Guilty Thoughts

Overwhelming feelings of sadness can consume a new mother’s thoughts in the first few days of childbirth. But if she experiences frequent crying spells, negative thoughts or constant guilt over not being a good mother, she may be experiencing postpartum depression. Constantly doubting one’s abilities or feeling worthless, hopeless and guilty are some of the earliest signs of PPD. Instead of being consumed with guilt, negativity or anxiety, new mothers should speak with an expert about their feelings.

Also, Read: Postnatal Depression: Causes and Symptoms

It can be difficult for new mothers to jump back into their old routines once their baby is born. But not being able to find joy in old habits, hobbies or pleasure can be a warning sign of postpartum depression. For instance, if a new mother no longer likes eating her favourite foods, watching her favourite movies or bonding with her partner, she may be experiencing postpartum depression. Losing interest in things once enjoyed or withdrawing from old hobbies and even family members can indicate the signs of PPD. 

Difficulty Making Decisions

Some women may experience difficulty making decisions or concentrating on activities and tasks after childbirth. For instance, being undecisive about taking a shower, changing the baby’s diaper or even getting out of bed are some common signs in women experiencing postpartum depression. Women suffering from PPD may feel extreme tiredness or lack of concentration and thinking abilities, preventing them from making sound decisions or arriving at a conclusion. 

Changes in Sleep Patterns

While it is normal for new mothers’ sleeping patterns to change with a new baby to look after but if they are unable to sleep or rest even when the baby is sleeping, it might be an indication of postpartum depression. Women suffering from PPD may find it extremely difficult to sleep during the night, feeling excessively sleepy during the day, difficulty falling asleep or trouble staying asleep. New mothers experiencing these symptoms should consult a doctor at the earliest.  

Loss of Appetite or Overeating

Among many other changes that take place in a woman after giving birth, there may be changes in her eating habits as well. But these changes are likely to dissipate within a week or two. If a new mother continues to feel a loss of appetite or develops overeating or binge eating habits, she may be experiencing postpartum depression. Instead of ignoring these signs or waiting for them to disappear, it is best to speak with an expert.

Final Thoughts

Most new mothers who feel depressed after their baby’s birth feel embarrassed or reluctant to admit it. But unless they get diagnosed, they cannot receive help and be treated. Women should not wait for improvement but get treatment at the earliest so they can enjoy their new life with their new baby.

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The birth of a baby can be life-changing as women go through a stream of intense physical, emotional and mental experiences during and after childbirth. Such a time of increased fear and anxiety leaves new mothers vulnerable to postpartum depression (PPD). A severe mental health illness, postpartum depression is a form of depression that affects women after childbirth. About 20-25% of first-time mothers in India experience PPD.

Postpartum depression involves feelings of extreme sadness, hopelessness, indifference, or anxiety and affects the new mother’s sleep, appetite, and energy. Due to the depression, new mothers fail to form a bond or attachment with their baby and end up blaming themselves for it. PPD can begin anytime during the first year after childbirth and can develop suddenly or gradually. By keeping an eye on the warning signs of postpartum depression, women can get diagnosed and get early help.

6 Early Warning Signs of Postpartum Depression (PPD)

Prolonged Baby Blues

Most new mothers experience baby blues following the birth of their baby, which include mood swings, anxiety, sadness, persistent tearfulness, reduced concentration, appetite problems and trouble sleeping. If these symptoms last longer than two weeks and interfere with the mother’s ability to perform daily tasks and bond with the baby, she may have postpartum depression. PPD is much more intense and threatening than baby blues and can last until a year after the baby’s birth. 

Pessimistic or Guilty Thoughts

Overwhelming feelings of sadness can consume a new mother’s thoughts in the first few days of childbirth. But if she experiences frequent crying spells, negative thoughts or constant guilt over not being a good mother, she may be experiencing postpartum depression. Constantly doubting one’s abilities or feeling worthless, hopeless and guilty are some of the earliest signs of PPD. Instead of being consumed with guilt, negativity or anxiety, new mothers should speak with an expert about their feelings.

Also, Read: Postnatal Depression: Causes and Symptoms

It can be difficult for new mothers to jump back into their old routines once their baby is born. But not being able to find joy in old habits, hobbies or pleasure can be a warning sign of postpartum depression. For instance, if a new mother no longer likes eating her favourite foods, watching her favourite movies or bonding with her partner, she may be experiencing postpartum depression. Losing interest in things once enjoyed or withdrawing from old hobbies and even family members can indicate the signs of PPD. 

Difficulty Making Decisions

Some women may experience difficulty making decisions or concentrating on activities and tasks after childbirth. For instance, being undecisive about taking a shower, changing the baby’s diaper or even getting out of bed are some common signs in women experiencing postpartum depression. Women suffering from PPD may feel extreme tiredness or lack of concentration and thinking abilities, preventing them from making sound decisions or arriving at a conclusion. 

Changes in Sleep Patterns

While it is normal for new mothers’ sleeping patterns to change with a new baby to look after but if they are unable to sleep or rest even when the baby is sleeping, it might be an indication of postpartum depression. Women suffering from PPD may find it extremely difficult to sleep during the night, feeling excessively sleepy during the day, difficulty falling asleep or trouble staying asleep. New mothers experiencing these symptoms should consult a doctor at the earliest.  

Loss of Appetite or Overeating

Among many other changes that take place in a woman after giving birth, there may be changes in her eating habits as well. But these changes are likely to dissipate within a week or two. If a new mother continues to feel a loss of appetite or develops overeating or binge eating habits, she may be experiencing postpartum depression. Instead of ignoring these signs or waiting for them to disappear, it is best to speak with an expert.

Final Thoughts

Most new mothers who feel depressed after their baby’s birth feel embarrassed or reluctant to admit it. But unless they get diagnosed, they cannot receive help and be treated. Women should not wait for improvement but get treatment at the earliest so they can enjoy their new life with their new baby.

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Early Warning Signs of Postpartum Depression

Early Warning Signs of Postpartum Depression

February 15, 2024

The birth of a baby can be life-changing as women go through a strea...

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            [blog_title] => Newborn Gastric Problems: Symptoms and Tips to Relieve Them
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Bringing a newborn home is an exciting time, but it can also come with some challenges, especially regarding digestion. Newborns may experience gastric problems that can cause discomfort for the baby and their parents.

Here, we will discuss the symptoms of newborn gastric problems, tips to help relieve them, and how long these issues typically last.

How do I know my newborn is having a gastric problem?

Here are some signs and symptoms that may indicate your newborn is having a gastric problem:

1. Spitting up or vomiting

Babies often spit milk with burps or after feedings due to their weak and immature sphincter muscles (a ring-shaped muscle in the body that relaxes or tightens to open or close a passage). However, forceful vomiting or spitting up considerable amounts of milk following most feedings may suggest stomach problems in newborns.

If your baby is frequently vomiting (especially green-tinged or discoloured) or shows other signs of discomfort, seek immediate medical attention from your baby’s paediatrician. 

2. Diarrhoea

Formula-fed newborns’ bowel motions are often yellow and shaped. They can happen once or twice a day, sometimes more. Breastfed babies have soft, seedy, yellow-green bowel motions several times a day, sometimes as often as every few hours with feedings.

Diarrhoea in babies causes frequent, watery bowel movements, which can quickly lead to severe dehydration and should be addressed immediately. Some other signs of diarrhoea include:

  • The stool contains mucus or has a bad odour
  • Lethargic (or less active than normal)
  • Poor eating
  • Acting sick or fever

If your baby experiences a change in bowel motions or shows these signs, seek advice from your baby’s physician.

3. Hiccups

Hiccups in babies are common and usually harmless. However, when babies experience digestive issues, they may develop persistent hiccups that can be bothersome and uncomfortable.

This frequently comes with stomach pain, which can make them cry. So, if you notice your newborn is experiencing frequent hiccups and seems fussy or in discomfort, they may have digestive problems that need attention.

4. Colic

Colitis is a condition that affects some healthy newborns between 3-4 months of age, causing continuous and uncontrollable crying for several hours each day, which can be very stressful for parents. It usually begins about three weeks of age, peaks at six weeks, and improves gradually by three months.

Babies may have colic due to the following reasons:

  • Adjusting to parents and the new world
  • Temperament
  • Gas hypersensitivity
  • Milk Allergy or intolerance to cow’s milk-based formulas

5. Reflux

Some babies may experience reflux, a condition in which stomach contents flow back into the oesophagus (the tube connecting the mouth and the stomach), causing irritation and discomfort. This can cause them to spit excessively and choke during feedings.

In severe cases, when the stomach contents back up into the oesophagus, the baby may vomit and breathe the contents into the lungs. This can cause rattling or wheezing sounds in your baby’s chest and back and may require medical attention.

6. Abdominal distension

Abdominal distension is common in newborns, where their bellies may appear larger after eating. However, their stomach should feel soft in between feedings. If it feels hard or the baby has not had a bowel movement in 1-2 days, it could be due to gas constipation, or possibly a more serious digestive problem.

What helps an infant’s digestion problem?

Here are some tips to follow that may help ease a newborn’s digestive problem:

1. Change the feeding position

When feeding babies, it’s important to keep their heads slightly elevated above their bellies to prevent discomfort or complications. Changing the babies’ positions while eating can help keep their heads elevated. This can be done by holding the babies upright or at slightly inclined angles, using breastfeeding pillows or reclined baby seats. Keeping the babies’ heads slightly elevated can help prevent milk or formula from flowing back into their throats and causing choking or discomfort. Additionally, it can help babies digest their food easily and lessen the likelihood of gas or reflux.

2. Improve latch

A latch refers to how a baby attaches to the breast while breastfeeding.

Breastfeeding mothers need to ensure that their babies are latching onto the breast correctly by taking in the areola and creating a good suction. If the latch is improper, babies may have difficulty attaching to the breast, leading to frequent detachment and swallowing more air, which can cause discomfort and fussiness.

Here are some tips to promote a good latch while breastfeeding:

  • Try to create a peaceful and relaxed atmosphere.
  • Hold your baby close to your bare chest to encourage skin-to-skin contact.
  • Let your baby take the lead. However, you can guide your baby towards your breast.
  • Support your baby’s head and neck. Avoid forcing your baby’s mouth onto your breast.
  • Let your breasts naturally hang.

Additionally, you can consult a lactation consultant if you have issues with the latch or other breastfeeding problems.

3. Check the flow

Mothers should pay attention to the flow speed of the milk when feeding their newborns, whether from the breast or a bottle. A high flow speed can cause newborns to gulp plenty of air with their meals, leading to discomfort and even colic.

If breastfeeding, you can avoid this by pumping or hand expressing for a few minutes before nursing, as flow tends to be fastest at let-down. If bottle-feeding, you can switch to a slower-flow nipple to reduce the flow speed. This helps the babies to drink at a more comfortable pace, which should reduce the amount of air they swallow.

It’s important to note that not all newborns have the same flow preferences, so you may need to experiment with different nipples until you find the one that works best for your baby.

4. Adjust bottle technique

When feeding babies with bottles, it’s important to prevent excess air intake as it can cause discomfort and gas. To avoid this, tilt the bottles at an angle that fills the entire nipple with milk, allowing the babies to feed without sucking in the air.

When using powdered formula, it’s best to let the bottle sit and settle before feeding your newborn. Shaking and mixing the formula can create bubbles, which newborns can ingest and cause discomfort and gas. To prevent this, consider using ready-made formula or specially designed vented bottles to help reduce the bubbles your newborn ingests and thus prevent gastric problems.

Experimenting with different bottles and techniques can help you find what works best for your babies.

5. Burp the baby twice

Swallowing air during feedings can cause a lot of discomfort in newborns. While feeding, babies often cry, gulp, and suckle, which can lead to swallowing air that can cause burps or gas. Burping your baby during and after a feeding is essential for preventing gas buildup. It will help release trapped air and ease your baby’s discomfort.

Consider burping your baby midway through the feeding by gently patting your baby’s back. You can also try burping your baby after every 2-3 ounces of bottle feeding or every 5-10 minutes of breastfeeding.

6. Encourage tummy time

Tummy time is not only vital for babies’ physical development, but it can also help relieve stubborn gas. The exercise can help the gas pass through their bodies, like a tummy massage. Being active can also encourage movement and ease discomfort.

However, wait 20-30 minutes after feeding before placing your baby on the tummy to avoid spitting up. You should also supervise your baby during tummy time to ensure safety.

How long do gastrointestinal problems in infants last?

Gastrointestinal problems are common in babies, especially when they are infants. Its duration can vary depending on the illness and condition. Some common gastrointestinal problems in infants include reflux, colic, diarrhoea, and constipation.

Reflux and colic usually resolve on their own by the time the infant is 3-4 months old. Diarrhoea caused by a viral infection normally clears up within a week, while diarrhoea caused by a bacterial infection may take longer. Constipation can last longer, but it is often manageable with changes in diet or medication.

However, if your infant has prolonged or severe gastrointestinal symptoms, it’s important to consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and treatment.

Take Away

Newborn gastric problems can be challenging for both the baby and the parents. However, with proper care, the symptoms can be relieved. It’s essential to pay attention to your baby’s cues and look for signs of discomfort.

Consult with a paediatrician at Apollo Cradle & Children’s Hospital if you suspect your baby is experiencing gastrointestinal problems, as they can provide valuable guidance and advice.

Remember that every baby is different, and some may experience digestive issues for longer than others. You can help your baby feel more comfortable and thrive with patience and care.

Apollo Cradle Has A Team Of The Best Pediatricians In Amritsar

Apollo Cradle Specialist

Best Gynaecologist in Hyderabad Best Pediatrician in Hyderabad
Best Gynaecologist in Bangalore Best Pediatrician in Bangalore
Best Gynaecologist in New Delhi Best Pediatrician in New Delhi
Best Gynaecologist in Amritsar Best Pediatrician in Amritsar

 

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Bringing a newborn home is an exciting time, but it can also come with some challenges, especially regarding digestion. Newborns may experience gastric problems that can cause discomfort for the baby and their parents.

Here, we will discuss the symptoms of newborn gastric problems, tips to help relieve them, and how long these issues typically last.

How do I know my newborn is having a gastric problem?

Here are some signs and symptoms that may indicate your newborn is having a gastric problem:

1. Spitting up or vomiting

Babies often spit milk with burps or after feedings due to their weak and immature sphincter muscles (a ring-shaped muscle in the body that relaxes or tightens to open or close a passage). However, forceful vomiting or spitting up considerable amounts of milk following most feedings may suggest stomach problems in newborns.

If your baby is frequently vomiting (especially green-tinged or discoloured) or shows other signs of discomfort, seek immediate medical attention from your baby’s paediatrician. 

2. Diarrhoea

Formula-fed newborns’ bowel motions are often yellow and shaped. They can happen once or twice a day, sometimes more. Breastfed babies have soft, seedy, yellow-green bowel motions several times a day, sometimes as often as every few hours with feedings.

Diarrhoea in babies causes frequent, watery bowel movements, which can quickly lead to severe dehydration and should be addressed immediately. Some other signs of diarrhoea include:

  • The stool contains mucus or has a bad odour
  • Lethargic (or less active than normal)
  • Poor eating
  • Acting sick or fever

If your baby experiences a change in bowel motions or shows these signs, seek advice from your baby’s physician.

3. Hiccups

Hiccups in babies are common and usually harmless. However, when babies experience digestive issues, they may develop persistent hiccups that can be bothersome and uncomfortable.

This frequently comes with stomach pain, which can make them cry. So, if you notice your newborn is experiencing frequent hiccups and seems fussy or in discomfort, they may have digestive problems that need attention.

4. Colic

Colitis is a condition that affects some healthy newborns between 3-4 months of age, causing continuous and uncontrollable crying for several hours each day, which can be very stressful for parents. It usually begins about three weeks of age, peaks at six weeks, and improves gradually by three months.

Babies may have colic due to the following reasons:

  • Adjusting to parents and the new world
  • Temperament
  • Gas hypersensitivity
  • Milk Allergy or intolerance to cow’s milk-based formulas

5. Reflux

Some babies may experience reflux, a condition in which stomach contents flow back into the oesophagus (the tube connecting the mouth and the stomach), causing irritation and discomfort. This can cause them to spit excessively and choke during feedings.

In severe cases, when the stomach contents back up into the oesophagus, the baby may vomit and breathe the contents into the lungs. This can cause rattling or wheezing sounds in your baby’s chest and back and may require medical attention.

6. Abdominal distension

Abdominal distension is common in newborns, where their bellies may appear larger after eating. However, their stomach should feel soft in between feedings. If it feels hard or the baby has not had a bowel movement in 1-2 days, it could be due to gas constipation, or possibly a more serious digestive problem.

What helps an infant’s digestion problem?

Here are some tips to follow that may help ease a newborn’s digestive problem:

1. Change the feeding position

When feeding babies, it’s important to keep their heads slightly elevated above their bellies to prevent discomfort or complications. Changing the babies’ positions while eating can help keep their heads elevated. This can be done by holding the babies upright or at slightly inclined angles, using breastfeeding pillows or reclined baby seats. Keeping the babies’ heads slightly elevated can help prevent milk or formula from flowing back into their throats and causing choking or discomfort. Additionally, it can help babies digest their food easily and lessen the likelihood of gas or reflux.

2. Improve latch

A latch refers to how a baby attaches to the breast while breastfeeding.

Breastfeeding mothers need to ensure that their babies are latching onto the breast correctly by taking in the areola and creating a good suction. If the latch is improper, babies may have difficulty attaching to the breast, leading to frequent detachment and swallowing more air, which can cause discomfort and fussiness.

Here are some tips to promote a good latch while breastfeeding:

  • Try to create a peaceful and relaxed atmosphere.
  • Hold your baby close to your bare chest to encourage skin-to-skin contact.
  • Let your baby take the lead. However, you can guide your baby towards your breast.
  • Support your baby’s head and neck. Avoid forcing your baby’s mouth onto your breast.
  • Let your breasts naturally hang.

Additionally, you can consult a lactation consultant if you have issues with the latch or other breastfeeding problems.

3. Check the flow

Mothers should pay attention to the flow speed of the milk when feeding their newborns, whether from the breast or a bottle. A high flow speed can cause newborns to gulp plenty of air with their meals, leading to discomfort and even colic.

If breastfeeding, you can avoid this by pumping or hand expressing for a few minutes before nursing, as flow tends to be fastest at let-down. If bottle-feeding, you can switch to a slower-flow nipple to reduce the flow speed. This helps the babies to drink at a more comfortable pace, which should reduce the amount of air they swallow.

It’s important to note that not all newborns have the same flow preferences, so you may need to experiment with different nipples until you find the one that works best for your baby.

4. Adjust bottle technique

When feeding babies with bottles, it’s important to prevent excess air intake as it can cause discomfort and gas. To avoid this, tilt the bottles at an angle that fills the entire nipple with milk, allowing the babies to feed without sucking in the air.

When using powdered formula, it’s best to let the bottle sit and settle before feeding your newborn. Shaking and mixing the formula can create bubbles, which newborns can ingest and cause discomfort and gas. To prevent this, consider using ready-made formula or specially designed vented bottles to help reduce the bubbles your newborn ingests and thus prevent gastric problems.

Experimenting with different bottles and techniques can help you find what works best for your babies.

5. Burp the baby twice

Swallowing air during feedings can cause a lot of discomfort in newborns. While feeding, babies often cry, gulp, and suckle, which can lead to swallowing air that can cause burps or gas. Burping your baby during and after a feeding is essential for preventing gas buildup. It will help release trapped air and ease your baby’s discomfort.

Consider burping your baby midway through the feeding by gently patting your baby’s back. You can also try burping your baby after every 2-3 ounces of bottle feeding or every 5-10 minutes of breastfeeding.

6. Encourage tummy time

Tummy time is not only vital for babies’ physical development, but it can also help relieve stubborn gas. The exercise can help the gas pass through their bodies, like a tummy massage. Being active can also encourage movement and ease discomfort.

However, wait 20-30 minutes after feeding before placing your baby on the tummy to avoid spitting up. You should also supervise your baby during tummy time to ensure safety.

How long do gastrointestinal problems in infants last?

Gastrointestinal problems are common in babies, especially when they are infants. Its duration can vary depending on the illness and condition. Some common gastrointestinal problems in infants include reflux, colic, diarrhoea, and constipation.

Reflux and colic usually resolve on their own by the time the infant is 3-4 months old. Diarrhoea caused by a viral infection normally clears up within a week, while diarrhoea caused by a bacterial infection may take longer. Constipation can last longer, but it is often manageable with changes in diet or medication.

However, if your infant has prolonged or severe gastrointestinal symptoms, it’s important to consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and treatment.

Take Away

Newborn gastric problems can be challenging for both the baby and the parents. However, with proper care, the symptoms can be relieved. It’s essential to pay attention to your baby’s cues and look for signs of discomfort.

Consult with a paediatrician at Apollo Cradle & Children’s Hospital if you suspect your baby is experiencing gastrointestinal problems, as they can provide valuable guidance and advice.

Remember that every baby is different, and some may experience digestive issues for longer than others. You can help your baby feel more comfortable and thrive with patience and care.

Apollo Cradle Has A Team Of The Best Pediatricians In Amritsar

Apollo Cradle Specialist

Best Gynaecologist in Hyderabad Best Pediatrician in Hyderabad
Best Gynaecologist in Bangalore Best Pediatrician in Bangalore
Best Gynaecologist in New Delhi Best Pediatrician in New Delhi
Best Gynaecologist in Amritsar Best Pediatrician in Amritsar

 

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Newborn Gastric Problems: Symptoms and Tips to Relieve Them

Newborn Gastric Problems: Symptoms and Tips to Relieve Them

May 4, 2023

Bringing a newborn home is an exciting time, but it can also come wi...

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            [blog_title] => Complete Guide to Infant Teething: Signs, Remedies, Teething Chart, and More
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Teething is a natural and critical part of your baby’s growth. As a parent, you want to do everything possible to ease your baby’s discomfort and ensure their teeth grow healthy and strong.

This can lead to questions about the best teething remedies and ways to make your little one smile during teething.

Here’s a guide that answers infant teething questions related to teething rashes, teething syndrome and more.

What Is Teething, And When Does It Start?

Teething is a natural process where a baby’s teeth start to push through its gums. Most babies start teething at seven months. However, in some cases, teething can start before your little one turns four months old. Meanwhile, teething continues for 24 months or more.

Some babies experience teething earlier or later than others. Therefore, there’s no need to worry if your little one’s teething seems delayed or ahead of schedule. Just monitor their progress and consult your paediatrician if you have any concerns.

What are the Common Signs of Teething?

The most common sign of infant teething is swollen or sore gums. This can make your toddlers fussy and irritated. So, they may cry more often than normal or want to chew everything they can get their hands on. But don’t worry. You can manage these symptoms with easy baby teething remedies, which we’ll look into later in the article.

Besides swollen or sore gums, here are some other signs of infant teething.

  • Teething stimulates the salivary glands, causing your little one to drool more than usual.
  • During teething, your baby may want to chew on everything they can get their hands on, including their own hands, toys, and even furniture.
  • Teething makes it difficult for your baby to eat and sleep comfortably, leading to changes in their usual patterns of food and sleep.
  • Excessive drooling can cause a rash around your baby’s mouth and chin.

Parents must know that babies might have different symptoms during teething. Therefore, it’s recommended to consult your paediatrician to confirm if your infant is teething.

What is a Baby Teething Chart?

An infant teething chart demonstrates the teething stages of your little one. Simply put, it shows how your baby will get different types of teeth, such as incisors, canines, premolars, and molars. Here we describe the teething stages.

  • Teething at 6-10 months:

Most babies start teething when they are 6 to 10 months old. Your little one will have swollen gums and redness in the area where the teeth are coming. Most babies start teething with lower central incisors. They are the two bottom middle teeth in your little one’s mouth.

  • Teething at 8-12 months:

The teething symptoms from the previous stage are evident in this stage too. Most babies get their two upper middle teeth during this time.  

  • Teething at 9-16 months:

You can see your baby’s teeth when they smile. You might also notice an evident increase in drool, crankiness, and the need to chew solid objects in your babies. Most babies in this stage develop a pair of teeth on either side of the upper middle teeth. Consecutively, they also develop a pair of teeth on either side of the lower middle teeth.

  • Teething at 13-18 months:

Your baby might experience loss of appetite and mild temperature in this teething stage. Their sleep schedule may also become sporadic. It’s because of their first molar eruption. Your little one’s first molars- teeth at the back of the mouth- will erupt on the top, followed by the bottom.

  • Teething at 16-23 months:

The canine teeth will erupt during this phase. The first canine teeth will appear on either side of the upper lateral incisors and molar, followed by the bottom canine on either side of the lower lateral incisors and molar.

  • Teething at 22-31 months:

This stage is painful for some babies. It’s because during this time the largest molar emerged. These are the biggest teeth and parents might need to find new ways to soothe their little ones.

Always remember that the baby teething chart may not be the same for all babies. So, don’t panic if your baby doesn’t follow the conventional infant teething chart.

When do the Primary Teeth shed?

The primary teeth don’t start to shed until your little one grows up to the age of 6 to 7 years.

What is Teething Syndrome, and How Common is it?

Teething syndrome refers to the symptoms your little ones may experience as their teething process starts. It’s a natural process and incredibly common in infants.

It’s important to note that not all babies experience teething syndrome. However, it’s important to be prepared for teething syndrome and know how to comfort your little one.

How to Take Care of Babies During Teething?

Seeing your little ones go through teething can be tough, but there are plenty of natural remedies that you can use to reduce their pain and soothe their gums. Here are some baby teething remedies to try:

  • Teething toys:

These are soft, chewy toys that can help satisfy your baby’s chewing urges. They come in various forms, like rubber teething rings or toys, so you can pick the ones your baby is comfortable with. These teething toys can be a perfect distraction from pain and discomfort.

  • Chilled foods:

If your little one is already eating solids, give them frozen or cold fruits to soothe their sore gums.

  • Massage:

Teething babies often find it soothing to have their gums rubbed gently. So gently massaging your baby’s gums with a clean finger can ease their discomfort.

Never give pain relievers to treat teething pain without consulting your paediatrician. That’s because pain relief medicines contain local anaesthetics, which are not suitable for infants under the age of three months.

What are Common Myths Associated with Infant Teething?

While caring is one part, people also get influenced by the myths. So, it is necessary to know the right information so you can care for your little one better. Here are four common myths associated with teething.

  • Teething causes high fever:

Baby teething doesn’t cause a high fever. Although some babies may experience a slight increase in body temperature while teething.

  • Teething causes diarrhoea:

It’s a common myth that parents believe. However, there is no evidence to prove that teething causes diarrhoea. Some babies may experience loose stools or diarrhoea during teething because they put things in their mouths that cause gastrointestinal illness.

  • Teething causes ear infections:

Some babies may have rashes on their ears while teething. However, having ear infections during teething is rare. But, teething and ear infections can occur at the same time, as they are both common in infants.

  • Teething happens all at once:

Teething is a process that can take several months to complete, and not all teeth come in at the same time.

It’s important to consult a paediatrician if you have questions about teething myths.

Final Thoughts

Baby teething can be a challenging time for both parents and babies. However, knowing what to expect and how to provide relief can make the process comfortable for your little one.

Contact a local paediatrician for guidance and support if you’re worried about your baby’s teething process. You can enjoy this exciting milestone with your little one with love, patience, and care.

Apollo Cradle has the Best Pediatricians in Bangalore

Apollo Cradle Specialist

Best Gynaecologist in Hyderabad Best Pediatrician in Hyderabad
Best Gynaecologist in Bangalore Best Pediatrician in Bangalore
Best Gynaecologist in New Delhi Best Pediatrician in New Delhi
Best Gynaecologist in Amritsar Best Pediatrician in Amritsar

 

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Teething is a natural and critical part of your baby’s growth. As a parent, you want to do everything possible to ease your baby’s discomfort and ensure their teeth grow healthy and strong.

This can lead to questions about the best teething remedies and ways to make your little one smile during teething.

Here’s a guide that answers infant teething questions related to teething rashes, teething syndrome and more.

What Is Teething, And When Does It Start?

Teething is a natural process where a baby’s teeth start to push through its gums. Most babies start teething at seven months. However, in some cases, teething can start before your little one turns four months old. Meanwhile, teething continues for 24 months or more.

Some babies experience teething earlier or later than others. Therefore, there’s no need to worry if your little one’s teething seems delayed or ahead of schedule. Just monitor their progress and consult your paediatrician if you have any concerns.

What are the Common Signs of Teething?

The most common sign of infant teething is swollen or sore gums. This can make your toddlers fussy and irritated. So, they may cry more often than normal or want to chew everything they can get their hands on. But don’t worry. You can manage these symptoms with easy baby teething remedies, which we’ll look into later in the article.

Besides swollen or sore gums, here are some other signs of infant teething.

  • Teething stimulates the salivary glands, causing your little one to drool more than usual.
  • During teething, your baby may want to chew on everything they can get their hands on, including their own hands, toys, and even furniture.
  • Teething makes it difficult for your baby to eat and sleep comfortably, leading to changes in their usual patterns of food and sleep.
  • Excessive drooling can cause a rash around your baby’s mouth and chin.

Parents must know that babies might have different symptoms during teething. Therefore, it’s recommended to consult your paediatrician to confirm if your infant is teething.

What is a Baby Teething Chart?

An infant teething chart demonstrates the teething stages of your little one. Simply put, it shows how your baby will get different types of teeth, such as incisors, canines, premolars, and molars. Here we describe the teething stages.

  • Teething at 6-10 months:

Most babies start teething when they are 6 to 10 months old. Your little one will have swollen gums and redness in the area where the teeth are coming. Most babies start teething with lower central incisors. They are the two bottom middle teeth in your little one’s mouth.

  • Teething at 8-12 months:

The teething symptoms from the previous stage are evident in this stage too. Most babies get their two upper middle teeth during this time.  

  • Teething at 9-16 months:

You can see your baby’s teeth when they smile. You might also notice an evident increase in drool, crankiness, and the need to chew solid objects in your babies. Most babies in this stage develop a pair of teeth on either side of the upper middle teeth. Consecutively, they also develop a pair of teeth on either side of the lower middle teeth.

  • Teething at 13-18 months:

Your baby might experience loss of appetite and mild temperature in this teething stage. Their sleep schedule may also become sporadic. It’s because of their first molar eruption. Your little one’s first molars- teeth at the back of the mouth- will erupt on the top, followed by the bottom.

  • Teething at 16-23 months:

The canine teeth will erupt during this phase. The first canine teeth will appear on either side of the upper lateral incisors and molar, followed by the bottom canine on either side of the lower lateral incisors and molar.

  • Teething at 22-31 months:

This stage is painful for some babies. It’s because during this time the largest molar emerged. These are the biggest teeth and parents might need to find new ways to soothe their little ones.

Always remember that the baby teething chart may not be the same for all babies. So, don’t panic if your baby doesn’t follow the conventional infant teething chart.

When do the Primary Teeth shed?

The primary teeth don’t start to shed until your little one grows up to the age of 6 to 7 years.

What is Teething Syndrome, and How Common is it?

Teething syndrome refers to the symptoms your little ones may experience as their teething process starts. It’s a natural process and incredibly common in infants.

It’s important to note that not all babies experience teething syndrome. However, it’s important to be prepared for teething syndrome and know how to comfort your little one.

How to Take Care of Babies During Teething?

Seeing your little ones go through teething can be tough, but there are plenty of natural remedies that you can use to reduce their pain and soothe their gums. Here are some baby teething remedies to try:

  • Teething toys:

These are soft, chewy toys that can help satisfy your baby’s chewing urges. They come in various forms, like rubber teething rings or toys, so you can pick the ones your baby is comfortable with. These teething toys can be a perfect distraction from pain and discomfort.

  • Chilled foods:

If your little one is already eating solids, give them frozen or cold fruits to soothe their sore gums.

  • Massage:

Teething babies often find it soothing to have their gums rubbed gently. So gently massaging your baby’s gums with a clean finger can ease their discomfort.

Never give pain relievers to treat teething pain without consulting your paediatrician. That’s because pain relief medicines contain local anaesthetics, which are not suitable for infants under the age of three months.

What are Common Myths Associated with Infant Teething?

While caring is one part, people also get influenced by the myths. So, it is necessary to know the right information so you can care for your little one better. Here are four common myths associated with teething.

  • Teething causes high fever:

Baby teething doesn’t cause a high fever. Although some babies may experience a slight increase in body temperature while teething.

  • Teething causes diarrhoea:

It’s a common myth that parents believe. However, there is no evidence to prove that teething causes diarrhoea. Some babies may experience loose stools or diarrhoea during teething because they put things in their mouths that cause gastrointestinal illness.

  • Teething causes ear infections:

Some babies may have rashes on their ears while teething. However, having ear infections during teething is rare. But, teething and ear infections can occur at the same time, as they are both common in infants.

  • Teething happens all at once:

Teething is a process that can take several months to complete, and not all teeth come in at the same time.

It’s important to consult a paediatrician if you have questions about teething myths.

Final Thoughts

Baby teething can be a challenging time for both parents and babies. However, knowing what to expect and how to provide relief can make the process comfortable for your little one.

Contact a local paediatrician for guidance and support if you’re worried about your baby’s teething process. You can enjoy this exciting milestone with your little one with love, patience, and care.

Apollo Cradle has the Best Pediatricians in Bangalore

Apollo Cradle Specialist

Best Gynaecologist in Hyderabad Best Pediatrician in Hyderabad
Best Gynaecologist in Bangalore Best Pediatrician in Bangalore
Best Gynaecologist in New Delhi Best Pediatrician in New Delhi
Best Gynaecologist in Amritsar Best Pediatrician in Amritsar

 

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Complete Guide to Infant Teething: Signs, Remedies, Teething Chart, and More

Complete Guide to Infant Teething: Signs, Remedies, Teething Chart, and More

May 3, 2023

Teething is a natural and critical part of your baby’s growth....

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In the human life cycle, the first few months after birth are critical for the overall development of the human body. Hence, caring for an infant can be an overwhelming experience for first-time parents. Everybody has advice to share, from online groups to immediate family and friends, which further adds to the ongoing confusion regarding what’s best for the baby. The ongoing pandemic has further contributed to the anxiety of bringing a newborn into the world with utmost precautions and safety for both mother and child.

Here are some basics that can help one care for the newborn in a suitable manner while ensuring that the new parents can sail smoothly through this memorable and enjoyable journey.

Important Tips for Newborn Care

Holding a Newborn Baby: Holding a newborn baby right is the most crucial part once the baby is out in this world. The fragile yet heavy head needs extra care and support, and hence, it’s always advisable to support the neck and head with one hand while holding the baby. Cradle hold, Shoulder hold, Belly hold and Lap hold are some of the ways in which one can securely hold a newborn infant. Baby needs support by both hands till they actually holds his head properly.

Apollo Cradle Has the Best Team of Highly Qualified Gynaecologists

Consult our Doctors
 

Feeding the Baby: In the beginning, an infant needs to be nursed every 2-3 hours to ensure adequate hydration in the body. This can be later changed to feed on demand, wherein the baby can be fed only when they go hungry. Important signs of hunger to look out for include constant crying, head tilt towards the breasts, sucking motions and sounds, etc. A newborn may require 30-40 ml of milk per feeding during initial days. It increases gradually to 60 – 120 ml per feed as infant grows.

Burping Out Is Key: Once the baby is fed, the carer needs to ensure that the baby burps. Since newborns get limited physical activity to ensure digestion, often gas forms in their stomach, leading to constant discomfort. Swallowing air while suckling can also lead to gas, making the baby cranky, upset or spit out the milk. Gently patting on the baby’s back might do the trick when helping the baby in burping. There are two ways to burp babies, parents can learn that art after delivery.

Gentle Baby Massage: Baby massage helps stimulate the circulatory and digestive system and may help with cramps, colic, and constipation. Apart from this, a gentle massage before a bath can help babies sleep better. It is always best to hire a professional expert or let a senior guide with the right moves and the most gentle ways to do this. Once parents get used to baby massage, either of parents also can do massage.

Diaper Change: There are many times babies need a diaper change. The constant use of diapers can often lead to skin rashes. Apply a diaper rash cream or pure coconut oil (virgin cold-pressed) to the baby’s tender skin. Alternatively, leave the diaper free in between the changes. Stocking up on baby essentials is an excellent way to be hassle-free while caring for the baby during those long days and nights.

Conclusion:

Caring for a newborn is challenging, especially for first-time parents; sometimes, even for experienced ones, it is quite a task. While it’s essential to seek advice when necessary and find the best way to comfort one’s baby, it is also important to remain calm and communicate affection and warmth towards the baby.

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In the human life cycle, the first few months after birth are critical for the overall development of the human body. Hence, caring for an infant can be an overwhelming experience for first-time parents. Everybody has advice to share, from online groups to immediate family and friends, which further adds to the ongoing confusion regarding what’s best for the baby. The ongoing pandemic has further contributed to the anxiety of bringing a newborn into the world with utmost precautions and safety for both mother and child.

Here are some basics that can help one care for the newborn in a suitable manner while ensuring that the new parents can sail smoothly through this memorable and enjoyable journey.

Important Tips for Newborn Care

Holding a Newborn Baby: Holding a newborn baby right is the most crucial part once the baby is out in this world. The fragile yet heavy head needs extra care and support, and hence, it’s always advisable to support the neck and head with one hand while holding the baby. Cradle hold, Shoulder hold, Belly hold and Lap hold are some of the ways in which one can securely hold a newborn infant. Baby needs support by both hands till they actually holds his head properly.

Apollo Cradle Has the Best Team of Highly Qualified Gynaecologists

Consult our Doctors
 

Feeding the Baby: In the beginning, an infant needs to be nursed every 2-3 hours to ensure adequate hydration in the body. This can be later changed to feed on demand, wherein the baby can be fed only when they go hungry. Important signs of hunger to look out for include constant crying, head tilt towards the breasts, sucking motions and sounds, etc. A newborn may require 30-40 ml of milk per feeding during initial days. It increases gradually to 60 – 120 ml per feed as infant grows.

Burping Out Is Key: Once the baby is fed, the carer needs to ensure that the baby burps. Since newborns get limited physical activity to ensure digestion, often gas forms in their stomach, leading to constant discomfort. Swallowing air while suckling can also lead to gas, making the baby cranky, upset or spit out the milk. Gently patting on the baby’s back might do the trick when helping the baby in burping. There are two ways to burp babies, parents can learn that art after delivery.

Gentle Baby Massage: Baby massage helps stimulate the circulatory and digestive system and may help with cramps, colic, and constipation. Apart from this, a gentle massage before a bath can help babies sleep better. It is always best to hire a professional expert or let a senior guide with the right moves and the most gentle ways to do this. Once parents get used to baby massage, either of parents also can do massage.

Diaper Change: There are many times babies need a diaper change. The constant use of diapers can often lead to skin rashes. Apply a diaper rash cream or pure coconut oil (virgin cold-pressed) to the baby’s tender skin. Alternatively, leave the diaper free in between the changes. Stocking up on baby essentials is an excellent way to be hassle-free while caring for the baby during those long days and nights.

Conclusion:

Caring for a newborn is challenging, especially for first-time parents; sometimes, even for experienced ones, it is quite a task. While it’s essential to seek advice when necessary and find the best way to comfort one’s baby, it is also important to remain calm and communicate affection and warmth towards the baby.

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5 Important Tips for Handling a Newborn

5 Important Tips for Handling a Newborn

February 5, 2022

In the human life cycle, the first few months after birth are critic...

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            [blog_title] => When Is the Double and Quadruple Marker Test Done?
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Quadruple Marker Test – There are many tests carried out during the time of pregnancy that can help one check up on maternal and foetal wellbeing. Marker tests help in detecting congenital and genetic disorders in the foetus. Most of the time, marker tests are carried out to see if the foetus could potentially have Down’s syndrome, a chromosomal abnormality affecting the physiological and psychological development of the child. For this reason, these tests are of utmost importance in the first and second trimesters.

Dual Marker Test

The dual marker test is a screening test, or a blood test conducted during the first trimester, anytime between the 11th and 13th week of pregnancy. This test is often accompanied by a Nuchal Translucency scan, better known as an NT scan. The blood test is intended to measure two markers called the human chorionic gonadotrophin, hCG, and the pregnancy-associated plasma protein or PAPP-A, while the NT scan gauges the fluid under the skin at the back of the foetus’ neck. The results of these tests can determine whether the child would have Down syndrome. If the results present unusual levels of hCG and PAPP-A, along with a high NT scan value, then it is highly likely that the child is at risk for Down Syndrome. These results will also show if the mother falls in the screen positive AKA high risk or screen negative or low-risk category. One out of 350 expecting mothers in India carries a Down syndrome baby, and depending on the results, the mother would be advised for more invasive tests such as Screening for Down Syndrome, amniocentesis, or CVS sampling.  

Triple and Quadruple Marker Test

Unlike the dual marker test, a triple or quadruple screening test is carried out during the second trimester of pregnancy. The 15th to 20th week period is ideal for conducting these tests. Normally, a quadruple marker test is comparatively more sensitive than the triple marker test. For both of these tests, the expecting mother is advised to take these tests to check if the foetus will inherit any genetic disorders.

For the quadruple marker test, the beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotrophin or b-hCG, serum alpha-fetoprotein or AFP, unconjugated estriol uEst, and Inhibin A, are the four hormones that are checked.

If the expecting mother is at risk of carrying a child who will have Down syndrome, then there are chances of hCG being high, while AFP and uEst would be lower than usual. Similar to the dual marker test, the doctors will go on to suggest other invasive tests based on the results of the aforementioned tests.

Note: These screening tests have 99.9% accuracy, and hence any major decisions should be taken only once you consult the doctor.

Apollo Cradle Specialist

Gynaecologist Doctor in Hyderabad Pediatrician Doctor in Hyderabad
Gynaecologist Doctor in Bangalore Pediatrician Doctor in Bangalore
Gynaecologist Doctor in New Delhi Pediatrician Doctor in New Delhi
Gynaecologist Doctor in Amritsar Pediatrician Doctor in Amritsar

 

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Quadruple Marker Test – There are many tests carried out during the time of pregnancy that can help one check up on maternal and foetal wellbeing. Marker tests help in detecting congenital and genetic disorders in the foetus. Most of the time, marker tests are carried out to see if the foetus could potentially have Down’s syndrome, a chromosomal abnormality affecting the physiological and psychological development of the child. For this reason, these tests are of utmost importance in the first and second trimesters.

Dual Marker Test

The dual marker test is a screening test, or a blood test conducted during the first trimester, anytime between the 11th and 13th week of pregnancy. This test is often accompanied by a Nuchal Translucency scan, better known as an NT scan. The blood test is intended to measure two markers called the human chorionic gonadotrophin, hCG, and the pregnancy-associated plasma protein or PAPP-A, while the NT scan gauges the fluid under the skin at the back of the foetus’ neck. The results of these tests can determine whether the child would have Down syndrome. If the results present unusual levels of hCG and PAPP-A, along with a high NT scan value, then it is highly likely that the child is at risk for Down Syndrome. These results will also show if the mother falls in the screen positive AKA high risk or screen negative or low-risk category. One out of 350 expecting mothers in India carries a Down syndrome baby, and depending on the results, the mother would be advised for more invasive tests such as Screening for Down Syndrome, amniocentesis, or CVS sampling.  

Triple and Quadruple Marker Test

Unlike the dual marker test, a triple or quadruple screening test is carried out during the second trimester of pregnancy. The 15th to 20th week period is ideal for conducting these tests. Normally, a quadruple marker test is comparatively more sensitive than the triple marker test. For both of these tests, the expecting mother is advised to take these tests to check if the foetus will inherit any genetic disorders.

For the quadruple marker test, the beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotrophin or b-hCG, serum alpha-fetoprotein or AFP, unconjugated estriol uEst, and Inhibin A, are the four hormones that are checked.

If the expecting mother is at risk of carrying a child who will have Down syndrome, then there are chances of hCG being high, while AFP and uEst would be lower than usual. Similar to the dual marker test, the doctors will go on to suggest other invasive tests based on the results of the aforementioned tests.

Note: These screening tests have 99.9% accuracy, and hence any major decisions should be taken only once you consult the doctor.

Apollo Cradle Specialist

Gynaecologist Doctor in Hyderabad Pediatrician Doctor in Hyderabad
Gynaecologist Doctor in Bangalore Pediatrician Doctor in Bangalore
Gynaecologist Doctor in New Delhi Pediatrician Doctor in New Delhi
Gynaecologist Doctor in Amritsar Pediatrician Doctor in Amritsar

 

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When Is the Double and Quadruple Marker Test Done?

When Is the Double and Quadruple Marker Test Done?

November 17, 2021

Quadruple Marker Test – There are many tests carried out durin...

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            [blog_title] => Does Your Baby Need Neonatal Care?
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Does Your Baby Need Neonatal Care? this is a very crucial question nowadays.

As wonderful as it seems, giving birth can also be a complex process, since many physical and emotional changes are observed in both the mother and the baby. The baby must undergo several physical adjustments to life once it is outside the mother’s body. Once the baby is out of the womb, it cannot sustain their mother’s blood supply and placenta for their bodily functions.

When the baby is in the womb, they depend on their mother for all their bodily functions, including breathing, eating, elimination of waste, and immune protection. As soon as the baby leaves the womb, the organs must start functioning. For instance, the lungs must start respiration, the cardiac and pulmonary circulation must change, the digestive system must begin to process food and excrete waste, while the kidneys must begin working to balance fluids & chemicals in the body and excrete waste.

The newborn baby’s body needs to get the systems to function properly, in a new way, to survive. Naturally, some babies might have some trouble in making this transition to the outside world. A preterm birth, difficult birth, or any birth defects can make it difficult for the baby to undergo these changes, which is why a lot of special care is available to help newborn babies with these changes.

What Is the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU)?

Newborns who might need intensive medical care are put in an area of the hospital which is called the neonatal intensive care unit or the NICU. The NICU is equipped with advanced technology and trained healthcare professionals who can provide special care for these newborn babies. Sometimes NICUs can also include care for babies who are not very sick and need specialized nursing care. While some hospitals don’t have the resources or staff for NICU, and the babies are required to be moved to another hospital, babies with intensive care needs do better if they are born in a Neonatal Care Hospital.

Which Babies Need Special Care?

 Here are a few factors about the mother that can indicate that the baby might need special neonatal care:

  • If the mother is below the age of 16 or above the age of 40
  • If she continues drug or alcohol use during pregnancy
  • If the mother has diabetes or high BP
  • If the mother deals with any STDs or Sexually transmitted diseases
  • If there are multiple pregnancies, (such as twins or triplets)
  • If there are unusual amounts of amniotic fluid
  • If there is a premature rupture of membranes

The presence of the following factors during delivery means that neonatal care could be vital:

  • If there are changes in the newborn's organ systems owing to the lack of oxygen
  • If the baby is delivered buttocks-first, or in any other unconventional position
  • If the baby’s first stool is passed during pregnancy into the amniotic fluid
  • If the umbilical cord is wrapped around the baby’s neck
  • If there was a forceps or caesarean delivery

The following factors in the new-born indicate that they’ll need special care:

  • If the baby is born at a gestational age of less than 37 weeks or more than 42 weeks
  • If the birth weight of the baby is less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces (2,500 grams) or over 8 pounds, 13 ounces (4,000 grams)
  • If the baby is too small for gestational age
  • If there was a use of medicine or resuscitation in the delivery room
  • If the baby has any birth defects
  • If the baby has any respiratory distress including rapid breathing, grunting, or stopping breathing, or infection such as herpes, group B streptococcus, chlamydia
  • If the baby has seizures
  • If the baby has low blood sugar
  • If there is a need for extra oxygen or monitoring, IV therapy, or medicines
  • If there is a need for special treatment or procedures such as a blood transfusion

Most babies admitted to the NICU are either born 37 weeks before pregnancy, have a low birth weight of less than 5.5 pounds, or have a health condition that needs special care.  Twins, triplets, and other multiples are also often admitted to the NICU because they tend to be born earlier and smaller than single-birth babies. Therefore babies need neonatal care. For information about neonatal care, get in touch with a paediatrician today.

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Does Your Baby Need Neonatal Care? this is a very crucial question nowadays.

As wonderful as it seems, giving birth can also be a complex process, since many physical and emotional changes are observed in both the mother and the baby. The baby must undergo several physical adjustments to life once it is outside the mother’s body. Once the baby is out of the womb, it cannot sustain their mother’s blood supply and placenta for their bodily functions.

When the baby is in the womb, they depend on their mother for all their bodily functions, including breathing, eating, elimination of waste, and immune protection. As soon as the baby leaves the womb, the organs must start functioning. For instance, the lungs must start respiration, the cardiac and pulmonary circulation must change, the digestive system must begin to process food and excrete waste, while the kidneys must begin working to balance fluids & chemicals in the body and excrete waste.

The newborn baby’s body needs to get the systems to function properly, in a new way, to survive. Naturally, some babies might have some trouble in making this transition to the outside world. A preterm birth, difficult birth, or any birth defects can make it difficult for the baby to undergo these changes, which is why a lot of special care is available to help newborn babies with these changes.

What Is the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU)?

Newborns who might need intensive medical care are put in an area of the hospital which is called the neonatal intensive care unit or the NICU. The NICU is equipped with advanced technology and trained healthcare professionals who can provide special care for these newborn babies. Sometimes NICUs can also include care for babies who are not very sick and need specialized nursing care. While some hospitals don’t have the resources or staff for NICU, and the babies are required to be moved to another hospital, babies with intensive care needs do better if they are born in a Neonatal Care Hospital.

Which Babies Need Special Care?

 Here are a few factors about the mother that can indicate that the baby might need special neonatal care:

  • If the mother is below the age of 16 or above the age of 40
  • If she continues drug or alcohol use during pregnancy
  • If the mother has diabetes or high BP
  • If the mother deals with any STDs or Sexually transmitted diseases
  • If there are multiple pregnancies, (such as twins or triplets)
  • If there are unusual amounts of amniotic fluid
  • If there is a premature rupture of membranes

The presence of the following factors during delivery means that neonatal care could be vital:

  • If there are changes in the newborn's organ systems owing to the lack of oxygen
  • If the baby is delivered buttocks-first, or in any other unconventional position
  • If the baby’s first stool is passed during pregnancy into the amniotic fluid
  • If the umbilical cord is wrapped around the baby’s neck
  • If there was a forceps or caesarean delivery

The following factors in the new-born indicate that they’ll need special care:

  • If the baby is born at a gestational age of less than 37 weeks or more than 42 weeks
  • If the birth weight of the baby is less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces (2,500 grams) or over 8 pounds, 13 ounces (4,000 grams)
  • If the baby is too small for gestational age
  • If there was a use of medicine or resuscitation in the delivery room
  • If the baby has any birth defects
  • If the baby has any respiratory distress including rapid breathing, grunting, or stopping breathing, or infection such as herpes, group B streptococcus, chlamydia
  • If the baby has seizures
  • If the baby has low blood sugar
  • If there is a need for extra oxygen or monitoring, IV therapy, or medicines
  • If there is a need for special treatment or procedures such as a blood transfusion

Most babies admitted to the NICU are either born 37 weeks before pregnancy, have a low birth weight of less than 5.5 pounds, or have a health condition that needs special care.  Twins, triplets, and other multiples are also often admitted to the NICU because they tend to be born earlier and smaller than single-birth babies. Therefore babies need neonatal care. For information about neonatal care, get in touch with a paediatrician today.

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Does Your Baby Need Neonatal Care?

Does Your Baby Need Neonatal Care?

November 17, 2021

Does Your Baby Need Neonatal Care? this is a very crucial question n...

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            [blog_title] => What is Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome(NAS) ?
            [metaTitle] => What is Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome(NAS) ?
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If your baby is experiencing withdrawal symptoms and has been asked to go for treatment to the NICU, chances are that your baby is suffering from NAS. Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) is a combination of symptoms that a newborn baby exhibits soon after birth due to a withdrawal from being exposed to drugs, traditionally opioids, when inside the mother’s uterus. Symptoms can often require the baby to be shifted to neonatal intensive care unit for observation. Although NAS is associated with heroin, there could be different situations and drugs that cause NAS.

When you consume drugs or medicines, it gets passed through the bloodstream and via the placenta to the unborn baby. If you use substances that affect you nervous system, they will affect the baby as well. By birth, the baby becomes used to the drug, but since the drug isn’t available anymore, the baby may start developing symptoms of withdrawal which will require neonatal care.

Let’s take a detailed look at the causes and symptoms of NAS.

Causes of NAS

Some medicines and drugs are more likely to cause this syndrome than others. Most of the times, all drugs or medicines will have some effect on the baby. If more than one drug is used, the symptoms are often worse.

Causative drugs can include:

  • Nicotine from cigarette smoking
  • Depressants like marijuana, alcohol or barbiturates
  • Antidepressant medicines like SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors)
  • Stimulants like cocaine or amphetamines (for these drugs, the effects on the baby are more likely to be because of the drugs themselves, and not from withdrawals)
  • Opioids like heroin and prescribed medicines like oxycodone and codeine

How does NAS affect babies?

In addition to the specific difficulties of withdrawal post-birth, problems affecting the baby may include:

  • Birth defects
  • Seizures
  • Premature birth
  • Poor intrauterine growth

Certain drugs will often lead to specific problems in your baby:

  • Cigarette smoking has long been known to affect the foetus. Generally, smokers have smaller babies than non-smokers. Babies of smokers may also be at an increased risk for stillbirth or premature birth.
  • Alcohol consumption during pregnancy also has significant effects on the foetus and the baby. The growth of the baby during pregnancy and after birth may become slowed and may develop deformities of the head and face, defects in the heart and mental retardation. The withdrawal symptoms of alcohol may last up to eighteen months
  • Use of marijuana is linked to lower birth weight and reduced size of the baby
  • Prenatal cocaine use may be linked to an increased risk of SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome).
  • Prenatal use of amphetamines is associated with premature birth and low birth weight, and also can cause intracranial bleeding in the baby’s head
  • Heroin and other opiates, including methadone, may cause significant withdrawal in the baby, with some symptoms lasting as long as six months. Seizures can also occur and are more likely to occur in babies born to methadone users

Since some results of newborn screenings and observations during the period of neonatal care might take days to come, having a baby that displays the above symptoms can be stressful for the child and often panic-inducing for the parents.

NAS is a condition that can be easily prevented by abstaining from drugs and other harmful substances, especially during pregnancy. Consult your gynaecologist today to know more about the prevention and treatment of this condition.

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If your baby is experiencing withdrawal symptoms and has been asked to go for treatment to the NICU, chances are that your baby is suffering from NAS. Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) is a combination of symptoms that a newborn baby exhibits soon after birth due to a withdrawal from being exposed to drugs, traditionally opioids, when inside the mother’s uterus. Symptoms can often require the baby to be shifted to neonatal intensive care unit for observation. Although NAS is associated with heroin, there could be different situations and drugs that cause NAS.

When you consume drugs or medicines, it gets passed through the bloodstream and via the placenta to the unborn baby. If you use substances that affect you nervous system, they will affect the baby as well. By birth, the baby becomes used to the drug, but since the drug isn’t available anymore, the baby may start developing symptoms of withdrawal which will require neonatal care.

Let’s take a detailed look at the causes and symptoms of NAS.

Causes of NAS

Some medicines and drugs are more likely to cause this syndrome than others. Most of the times, all drugs or medicines will have some effect on the baby. If more than one drug is used, the symptoms are often worse.

Causative drugs can include:

  • Nicotine from cigarette smoking
  • Depressants like marijuana, alcohol or barbiturates
  • Antidepressant medicines like SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors)
  • Stimulants like cocaine or amphetamines (for these drugs, the effects on the baby are more likely to be because of the drugs themselves, and not from withdrawals)
  • Opioids like heroin and prescribed medicines like oxycodone and codeine

How does NAS affect babies?

In addition to the specific difficulties of withdrawal post-birth, problems affecting the baby may include:

  • Birth defects
  • Seizures
  • Premature birth
  • Poor intrauterine growth

Certain drugs will often lead to specific problems in your baby:

  • Cigarette smoking has long been known to affect the foetus. Generally, smokers have smaller babies than non-smokers. Babies of smokers may also be at an increased risk for stillbirth or premature birth.
  • Alcohol consumption during pregnancy also has significant effects on the foetus and the baby. The growth of the baby during pregnancy and after birth may become slowed and may develop deformities of the head and face, defects in the heart and mental retardation. The withdrawal symptoms of alcohol may last up to eighteen months
  • Use of marijuana is linked to lower birth weight and reduced size of the baby
  • Prenatal cocaine use may be linked to an increased risk of SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome).
  • Prenatal use of amphetamines is associated with premature birth and low birth weight, and also can cause intracranial bleeding in the baby’s head
  • Heroin and other opiates, including methadone, may cause significant withdrawal in the baby, with some symptoms lasting as long as six months. Seizures can also occur and are more likely to occur in babies born to methadone users

Since some results of newborn screenings and observations during the period of neonatal care might take days to come, having a baby that displays the above symptoms can be stressful for the child and often panic-inducing for the parents.

NAS is a condition that can be easily prevented by abstaining from drugs and other harmful substances, especially during pregnancy. Consult your gynaecologist today to know more about the prevention and treatment of this condition.

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What is Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome(NAS) ?

What is Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome(NAS) ?

August 22, 2021

If your baby is experiencing withdrawal symptoms and has been asked ...

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            [blog_title] => Deworming in children
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Children are the future of the world and they are tender in their thoughts, knowledge and health. Every parent desires to guarantee a healthier environment and a better life for their child. However, when it comes to a child’s health, many factors come into play and can sometimes be a complex task. The presence of worms in the stomach or intestine is one problem that many children face during their growing stage. 

As the World Health Organization (WHO) states, ‘Soil-borne helminth infections are one among the most common infections in humans, caused by a group of parasites, referred to as worms, including roundworms, whipworms and hookworms. These intestinal worms can seriously affect the nutrition and growth of the child. A child may undergo deworming regularly to remove the intestinal worms. Such worms need to be killed, otherwise, they can multiply and lay eggs in the intestine causing major damage to the body. Some of those intestinal parasites may even be fatal and should therefore not be overlooked. Worms also make the child more vulnerable to diseases such as intestinal obstruction and reduce the ability to sufficiently absorb vitamins. Parasitic worms also sometimes allow the child to become malnourished and/or stunted even without obvious symptoms. 

Symptoms of worms in children:

The common symptoms a child is likely to experience if these worms affect him/her complains of a sore tummy, anaemia, diarrhoea, vomiting and nausea, fatigue and lethargy, constant coughing, frequent and painful urination, trouble sleeping due to irritating itchiness, rashes, itching in the anal region, being hungry all the time, bouts of hunger strike or loss of appetite (loss in weight) and rare occurrences of blood during diarrhoea or in the stool. 

Importance of Deworming:

Deworming helps to remove worms and any infection that might disturb the patient and it is important for those infected by these worms. However, its effectiveness remains under review. Deworming is thought to improve the health of the child by enabling them to consume the necessary nutrients needed by the body, thereby helping the child to battle malnutrition and gain weight. 

Treatment for worms in children:

Based on factors such as the child’s age, the type of worm that has infected the intestines, the infections caused by the worm etc, treatment is recommended. Being a short and quick treatment, the deworming tablets for children usually kill the parasites and cause no other harsh damage to your child’s body. 

How do children get affected?

Intestinal worms or parasites are usually found among children exposed to the unclean environment, and mostly in direct contact with the soil. Soil is likely to be contaminated with worm eggs or larvae in areas that lack sanitation or are populated by animals. Children who play in these areas or those who roam barefoot are likely to be affected by these worms. Dirty hands, tools, toys or food are easy transmission instruments for these parasites, which can go from the contaminated soil to the mouth of the child and eventually inside the body and intestine.

Some tips to prevent worms in children include:

  • Maintain a clean surrounding
  • Inculcate clean habits in the child, whenever he/she comes from playing
  • Educate the child to not play barefoot in the grass, mud or outdoor areas
  • Assure that the child only uses clean and hygienic swimming pools
  • Avoid the infested fruit or vegetable. Wash vegetables and fruits thoroughly before the child eats them
  • Do not let the child consume raw meats, or semi-cooked vegetables which could have worms in them
  • Unless it is safe, let the child have no water from public tanks. Try drinking boiled water

It is therefore important to manage a clean and healthy environment for children so that they can be rescued from these worms and are therefore not in need of deworming and can lead a healthier life.

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Children are the future of the world and they are tender in their thoughts, knowledge and health. Every parent desires to guarantee a healthier environment and a better life for their child. However, when it comes to a child’s health, many factors come into play and can sometimes be a complex task. The presence of worms in the stomach or intestine is one problem that many children face during their growing stage. 

As the World Health Organization (WHO) states, ‘Soil-borne helminth infections are one among the most common infections in humans, caused by a group of parasites, referred to as worms, including roundworms, whipworms and hookworms. These intestinal worms can seriously affect the nutrition and growth of the child. A child may undergo deworming regularly to remove the intestinal worms. Such worms need to be killed, otherwise, they can multiply and lay eggs in the intestine causing major damage to the body. Some of those intestinal parasites may even be fatal and should therefore not be overlooked. Worms also make the child more vulnerable to diseases such as intestinal obstruction and reduce the ability to sufficiently absorb vitamins. Parasitic worms also sometimes allow the child to become malnourished and/or stunted even without obvious symptoms. 

Symptoms of worms in children:

The common symptoms a child is likely to experience if these worms affect him/her complains of a sore tummy, anaemia, diarrhoea, vomiting and nausea, fatigue and lethargy, constant coughing, frequent and painful urination, trouble sleeping due to irritating itchiness, rashes, itching in the anal region, being hungry all the time, bouts of hunger strike or loss of appetite (loss in weight) and rare occurrences of blood during diarrhoea or in the stool. 

Importance of Deworming:

Deworming helps to remove worms and any infection that might disturb the patient and it is important for those infected by these worms. However, its effectiveness remains under review. Deworming is thought to improve the health of the child by enabling them to consume the necessary nutrients needed by the body, thereby helping the child to battle malnutrition and gain weight. 

Treatment for worms in children:

Based on factors such as the child’s age, the type of worm that has infected the intestines, the infections caused by the worm etc, treatment is recommended. Being a short and quick treatment, the deworming tablets for children usually kill the parasites and cause no other harsh damage to your child’s body. 

How do children get affected?

Intestinal worms or parasites are usually found among children exposed to the unclean environment, and mostly in direct contact with the soil. Soil is likely to be contaminated with worm eggs or larvae in areas that lack sanitation or are populated by animals. Children who play in these areas or those who roam barefoot are likely to be affected by these worms. Dirty hands, tools, toys or food are easy transmission instruments for these parasites, which can go from the contaminated soil to the mouth of the child and eventually inside the body and intestine.

Some tips to prevent worms in children include:

  • Maintain a clean surrounding
  • Inculcate clean habits in the child, whenever he/she comes from playing
  • Educate the child to not play barefoot in the grass, mud or outdoor areas
  • Assure that the child only uses clean and hygienic swimming pools
  • Avoid the infested fruit or vegetable. Wash vegetables and fruits thoroughly before the child eats them
  • Do not let the child consume raw meats, or semi-cooked vegetables which could have worms in them
  • Unless it is safe, let the child have no water from public tanks. Try drinking boiled water

It is therefore important to manage a clean and healthy environment for children so that they can be rescued from these worms and are therefore not in need of deworming and can lead a healthier life.

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Deworming in children

Deworming in children

February 18, 2021

Children are the future of the world and ...

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            [blog_title] => Why you shouldn’t let anyone to kiss your new-born
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The first cry of a newborn brings so much joy and overwhelming happiness to families. It is heart-warming to just look at the baby, and even more delightful to carry that little infant in your arms. 

This thrilling joy is not restricted to just the parents, but also to the immediate family members – assorted siblings, cousins, uncles, aunts and naturally, the overjoyed grandparents.  

When they see the little one, no one can resist giving just one little tiny peck on the cheek, forehead or nose of this little bundle of cuteness. This is an expression of pure love. But, it is something that doctors and paediatricians worldwide clearly say NO to. Giving a child even a small little kiss on their face or even hands or feet is simply not advised. 

Baby skin is very delicate and easily prone to rashes and infections. Their immune system has not yet evolved properly, and it is important to keep them protected in every way so that they don’t come in contact with any pathogens, bacteria or viruses. Washing and disinfecting our hands, arms and faces is always necessary before interacting with the child.  Newborns are also quite vulnerable to HSV-1, better known as the Herpes Simplex Virus, which causes mouth sores in adults and can spread through physical contact. So, if unknowingly an adult carrier of the virus kisses the child, it may lead to several complications.  

As parents and grandparents, you can be gentle but firm with all visitors, and make sure that they shower their love and blessings on the newborn, but don’t smother him/her in kisses.  

A lot of young couples nowadays keep sanitisers for people to use before interacting with their baby. Some of them do not allow the child to be carried by anyone else, other than themselves or their parents.  It is a matter of serious concern, and you have the right to request people to not do certain things. If, as a new parent, you feel awkward stopping anyone directly, you can always tell them that the doctors have asked visitors to not do so. Alternatively, ask your parents to explain this to the rest of the family and friends.  

While being a parent and grandparent is truly the most enriching and fulfilling experience of your life, it comes with a whole new set of lessons and learning. 

We at Apollo Cradle & Children’s Hospital are here to help you with any concerns, queries or worries you might have. For any questions, please contact: 1860 500 4424.

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The first cry of a newborn brings so much joy and overwhelming happiness to families. It is heart-warming to just look at the baby, and even more delightful to carry that little infant in your arms. 

This thrilling joy is not restricted to just the parents, but also to the immediate family members – assorted siblings, cousins, uncles, aunts and naturally, the overjoyed grandparents.  

When they see the little one, no one can resist giving just one little tiny peck on the cheek, forehead or nose of this little bundle of cuteness. This is an expression of pure love. But, it is something that doctors and paediatricians worldwide clearly say NO to. Giving a child even a small little kiss on their face or even hands or feet is simply not advised. 

Baby skin is very delicate and easily prone to rashes and infections. Their immune system has not yet evolved properly, and it is important to keep them protected in every way so that they don’t come in contact with any pathogens, bacteria or viruses. Washing and disinfecting our hands, arms and faces is always necessary before interacting with the child.  Newborns are also quite vulnerable to HSV-1, better known as the Herpes Simplex Virus, which causes mouth sores in adults and can spread through physical contact. So, if unknowingly an adult carrier of the virus kisses the child, it may lead to several complications.  

As parents and grandparents, you can be gentle but firm with all visitors, and make sure that they shower their love and blessings on the newborn, but don’t smother him/her in kisses.  

A lot of young couples nowadays keep sanitisers for people to use before interacting with their baby. Some of them do not allow the child to be carried by anyone else, other than themselves or their parents.  It is a matter of serious concern, and you have the right to request people to not do certain things. If, as a new parent, you feel awkward stopping anyone directly, you can always tell them that the doctors have asked visitors to not do so. Alternatively, ask your parents to explain this to the rest of the family and friends.  

While being a parent and grandparent is truly the most enriching and fulfilling experience of your life, it comes with a whole new set of lessons and learning. 

We at Apollo Cradle & Children’s Hospital are here to help you with any concerns, queries or worries you might have. For any questions, please contact: 1860 500 4424.

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Why you shouldn’t let anyone to kiss your new-born

Why you shouldn’t let anyone to kiss your new-born

February 18, 2021

The first cry of a newborn brings so much...

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            [blog_title] => What is low birth weight? Causes & Diagnosis Methods
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Health can be considered to be a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, without the presence of infirmity or diseases. This often the primary objective of health services, including maternal and child health. The birth weight of a newborn is a good indicator of the status of maternal health. It is also one of the most important factors that determine neonatal mortality and morbidity (newborn death and disease), infant and child morbidity (disease).

Let’s understand what low birth weight means, it’s causes, prevalence, and its diagnosis methods before delivery.

What is low birth weight

It is the term used to describe babies that are born weighing less than 2.5 kilograms. An average newborn baby usually weighs more than 3.5 kg. A low birth weight baby may be healthy at times when the size of the infant is small in general. However, in most of the cases, it can be an indicator of serious health problems.

What causes low birth weight?

It is usually caused by being born too early (prematurely or before 37 weeks of pregnancy). A premature baby has less time to grow and gain weight in the mother’s womb (uterus). Therefore, most of the baby’s weight is gained during the last weeks of pregnancy.

Another cause of low birth weight is IUGR or Intrauterine Growth Restriction. This happens when a baby does not grow well during pregnancy. It may happen due to problems with the placenta, the baby’s health, or the mother’s health. Babies can have IUGR and be premature (characterised by the small size and physical immaturity) and full-term (characterised by a delivery between 37 and 41 weeks of pregnancy with decent physical maturity, yet small in size)

Prevalence in India

India has one of the highest proportions of babies born with low birth weight. Estimates suggest that about 7.5 million babies are born underweight in India every year. Many mothers in India from economically weaker backgrounds in suffer from nutritional deficiencies. Some of the ones who are financially equipped to take care of their nutrition, lag due to lack of awareness about including sufficient amounts of calcium and protein in the diet.

Can a doctor diagnose possible low birth weight before delivery

During pregnancy, the size of the baby is estimated in different ways. There are three ways that are usually employed to find out the weight:

  1. Monitoring weight gain

    This is one way of checking on the baby’s growth.

  2. Fundal height

    For checking fundal height, the doctor measures from the top of the mother’s pubic bone to the top of the uterus. The fundal height is measured in centimetres and is almost the same as the number of weeks of pregnancy after week 20. For example, at 24 weeks’ gestation, the fundal height should be close to 24 cm. If the fundal height is less than the respective value, it may mean that the baby is not growing well.

  3. Fetal ultrasound

    It is used to check the baby’s growth and development. Ultrasound uses soundwaves to create a picture of the baby. It is a more accurate way when compared to checking fundal height. Measurements can be taken of the baby’s head, belly (abdomen), and upper leg bone (femur). These measurements are used to estimate the weight of the baby.

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Health can be considered to be a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, without the presence of infirmity or diseases. This often the primary objective of health services, including maternal and child health. The birth weight of a newborn is a good indicator of the status of maternal health. It is also one of the most important factors that determine neonatal mortality and morbidity (newborn death and disease), infant and child morbidity (disease).

Let’s understand what low birth weight means, it’s causes, prevalence, and its diagnosis methods before delivery.

What is low birth weight

It is the term used to describe babies that are born weighing less than 2.5 kilograms. An average newborn baby usually weighs more than 3.5 kg. A low birth weight baby may be healthy at times when the size of the infant is small in general. However, in most of the cases, it can be an indicator of serious health problems.

What causes low birth weight?

It is usually caused by being born too early (prematurely or before 37 weeks of pregnancy). A premature baby has less time to grow and gain weight in the mother’s womb (uterus). Therefore, most of the baby’s weight is gained during the last weeks of pregnancy.

Another cause of low birth weight is IUGR or Intrauterine Growth Restriction. This happens when a baby does not grow well during pregnancy. It may happen due to problems with the placenta, the baby’s health, or the mother’s health. Babies can have IUGR and be premature (characterised by the small size and physical immaturity) and full-term (characterised by a delivery between 37 and 41 weeks of pregnancy with decent physical maturity, yet small in size)

Prevalence in India

India has one of the highest proportions of babies born with low birth weight. Estimates suggest that about 7.5 million babies are born underweight in India every year. Many mothers in India from economically weaker backgrounds in suffer from nutritional deficiencies. Some of the ones who are financially equipped to take care of their nutrition, lag due to lack of awareness about including sufficient amounts of calcium and protein in the diet.

Can a doctor diagnose possible low birth weight before delivery

During pregnancy, the size of the baby is estimated in different ways. There are three ways that are usually employed to find out the weight:

  1. Monitoring weight gain

    This is one way of checking on the baby’s growth.

  2. Fundal height

    For checking fundal height, the doctor measures from the top of the mother’s pubic bone to the top of the uterus. The fundal height is measured in centimetres and is almost the same as the number of weeks of pregnancy after week 20. For example, at 24 weeks’ gestation, the fundal height should be close to 24 cm. If the fundal height is less than the respective value, it may mean that the baby is not growing well.

  3. Fetal ultrasound

    It is used to check the baby’s growth and development. Ultrasound uses soundwaves to create a picture of the baby. It is a more accurate way when compared to checking fundal height. Measurements can be taken of the baby’s head, belly (abdomen), and upper leg bone (femur). These measurements are used to estimate the weight of the baby.

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What is low birth weight? Causes & Diagnosis Methods

What is low birth weight? Causes & Diagnosis Methods

December 6, 2020

Health can be considered to be a state of complete physical, mental,...

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            [blog_title] => Can Hyperglycemia Be a Risk Factor for Low-Birth-Weight Babies?
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One of the most prevalent clinical concerns among extremely low birth weight newborns is hyperglycemia. Hyper means high and glycemia is the term used for blood sugar levels. This means when there is too much sugar in the blood because the body lacks enough insulin, the condition is known as hyperglycemia – which is a body with less insulin and more sugar in the blood.

When a newborn’s plasma glucose levels are abnormally high (145mg per dl),  it is called neonatal hyperglycemia . This situation occurs when there is a lack of sufficient levels of insulin in the body.

Causes of Hyperglycemia in Low-Birth-Weight Babies

Hyperglycemia in newborns may be caused because of infection, liver problems, hormone problems, and some medical side effects. Rarely, newborns may be born with diabetes, resulting in low insulin levels and high blood sugar levels.

Hyperglycemia in newborns is present in both term and preterm infants. This kind of high blood sugar occurs in newborns immediately after birth during the age of one month. Both male and female neonates are equally likely to develop hyperglycemia.

The condition may occur following IV glucose-infusion, exchange transfusion of blood and in anencephalic babies due to poor utilization of glucose. Glucose utilization is also reduced in meningitis, meningoencephalitis and intra-cranial hemorrhage leading to elevation of blood glucose.

Extremely low-birth-weight babies may not utilize 10% dextrose leading to hyperglycemia.

Administration of certain drugs in preterm infants for management of apneic attacks may lead to hyperglycemia due to activation of liver enzymes.

Neonatal infections may rarely cause hyperglycemia by imposing added stress to an already impaired carbohydrate metabolism. This is because of the release of the hormone’s adrenaline and norepinephrine during stress response in infants, who are seriously not well or suffering from low birth weight. These hormones affect the liver to release glucose into the blood circulation, resulting in elevated blood sugar levels and hyperglycemia.

Diabetes in the newborn during the first 6 months of life is another cause of infant hyperglycemia. It is caused because the infant cannot produce enough insulin. Low insulin levels lead to high blood glucose levels, which is another cause of newborn hyperglycemia.

Consult our Doctors

Risk Factors

Some of the risk factors for hyperglycemia in infants are infants born prematurity, typical stress response to critical illness that can result in high blood sugar level, glucocorticoids therapy are a common treatment for low birth weight, which can lead to increased blood sugar, development of neonatal diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).

There are several factors that affect neonatal blood glucose such as – gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, hypoxia, maternal intake of steroids, the severity of illness, and sepsis.

Symptoms

The signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia in infants are usually not seen but one can identify hyperglycemia in Infants is characterized by frequent and excessive urine, dehydration, and increased thirst. Infants with hyperglycemia may have no symptoms or have a delayed start of signs.

Tests and Treatment

To monitor the infant’s blood sugar level, a blood test will be performed. This can be done with a heel or finger stick at the bedside or in a health care provider’s office or lab. And the treatment of hyperglycemia should include either lowering the amount of glucose given or initiating insulin therapy or both should be performed together. This can be managed by IV re-hydration and administration of insulin in a dose on 0.5 – 3 units per kg per day, given sub-cutaneously. This needs to be continued for a few weeks.   

Conclusion

Early treatment of hyperglycemia in newborns is generally good. In many cases, there are no long-term effects on the newborns. It is very important to get in touch with the healthcare providers if any doubt occurs by observation.

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One of the most prevalent clinical concerns among extremely low birth weight newborns is hyperglycemia. Hyper means high and glycemia is the term used for blood sugar levels. This means when there is too much sugar in the blood because the body lacks enough insulin, the condition is known as hyperglycemia – which is a body with less insulin and more sugar in the blood.

When a newborn’s plasma glucose levels are abnormally high (145mg per dl),  it is called neonatal hyperglycemia . This situation occurs when there is a lack of sufficient levels of insulin in the body.

Causes of Hyperglycemia in Low-Birth-Weight Babies

Hyperglycemia in newborns may be caused because of infection, liver problems, hormone problems, and some medical side effects. Rarely, newborns may be born with diabetes, resulting in low insulin levels and high blood sugar levels.

Hyperglycemia in newborns is present in both term and preterm infants. This kind of high blood sugar occurs in newborns immediately after birth during the age of one month. Both male and female neonates are equally likely to develop hyperglycemia.

The condition may occur following IV glucose-infusion, exchange transfusion of blood and in anencephalic babies due to poor utilization of glucose. Glucose utilization is also reduced in meningitis, meningoencephalitis and intra-cranial hemorrhage leading to elevation of blood glucose.

Extremely low-birth-weight babies may not utilize 10% dextrose leading to hyperglycemia.

Administration of certain drugs in preterm infants for management of apneic attacks may lead to hyperglycemia due to activation of liver enzymes.

Neonatal infections may rarely cause hyperglycemia by imposing added stress to an already impaired carbohydrate metabolism. This is because of the release of the hormone’s adrenaline and norepinephrine during stress response in infants, who are seriously not well or suffering from low birth weight. These hormones affect the liver to release glucose into the blood circulation, resulting in elevated blood sugar levels and hyperglycemia.

Diabetes in the newborn during the first 6 months of life is another cause of infant hyperglycemia. It is caused because the infant cannot produce enough insulin. Low insulin levels lead to high blood glucose levels, which is another cause of newborn hyperglycemia.

Consult our Doctors

Risk Factors

Some of the risk factors for hyperglycemia in infants are infants born prematurity, typical stress response to critical illness that can result in high blood sugar level, glucocorticoids therapy are a common treatment for low birth weight, which can lead to increased blood sugar, development of neonatal diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).

There are several factors that affect neonatal blood glucose such as – gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, hypoxia, maternal intake of steroids, the severity of illness, and sepsis.

Symptoms

The signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia in infants are usually not seen but one can identify hyperglycemia in Infants is characterized by frequent and excessive urine, dehydration, and increased thirst. Infants with hyperglycemia may have no symptoms or have a delayed start of signs.

Tests and Treatment

To monitor the infant’s blood sugar level, a blood test will be performed. This can be done with a heel or finger stick at the bedside or in a health care provider’s office or lab. And the treatment of hyperglycemia should include either lowering the amount of glucose given or initiating insulin therapy or both should be performed together. This can be managed by IV re-hydration and administration of insulin in a dose on 0.5 – 3 units per kg per day, given sub-cutaneously. This needs to be continued for a few weeks.   

Conclusion

Early treatment of hyperglycemia in newborns is generally good. In many cases, there are no long-term effects on the newborns. It is very important to get in touch with the healthcare providers if any doubt occurs by observation.

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Can Hyperglycemia Be a Risk Factor for Low-Birth-Weight Babies?

Can Hyperglycemia Be a Risk Factor for Low-Birth-Weight Babies?

April 4, 2020

One of the most prevalent clinical concerns among extremely low birt...

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Low birth weight is a term used to describe babies who are born weighing less than 2,500 grams (5 pounds, 8 ounces). Some babies with low birth weight are healthy, even though they’re small. However, being low in birth weight can cause serious health problems for some babies. A baby with low birth weight may have trouble eating, gaining weight, and fighting off infections. Some low birth weight babies may have long-term health problems, too.

When it comes to low birth weight in newborns, the primary causative factor is usually premature birth, which is before 37 weeks gestation. A baby that has been born early often gets less time in the mother’s uterus to grow and gain weight. Most of the foetus’s weight is gained during the latter part of the mother’s pregnancy. However, there can also be other factors that can lead to low birth weight in infants.

Let’s look at the top 5 factors that can, directly and indirectly, lead to low birth weight in newborns.

Multiple deliveries

If a mom is carrying twins, triplets, or more than three infants, the probability of the baby being underweight increases significantly. Multiple pregnancies can lead to excess stress on the uterus because the babies trying to share the available nutrition.

Foetal Infections

Some viral and parasitic infections can lead to foetal problems like slow growth or even birth defects. Following are some infections that one should be aware of:

  • Toxoplasmosis: Infection with this parasite during pregnancy is often associated with loss of hearing or sight and even brain defects.
  • Chickenpox: Being exposed to this virus during the first or second trimester is associated with suffering from congenital varicella syndrome, which can include scarring, limb malformation, growth problems, and mental disabilities.
  • Rubella: Also called German Measles, it can cause birth defects like heart problems, sight, hearing, and mental retardation.
  • Cytomegalovirus: This is a common herpes virus that is present in bodily fluids. It has been associated with disabilities like neural tube defects and Down syndrome.

Alcohol Consumption

Consuming alcohol or other drugs during pregnancy can be extremely dangerous as they release chemicals into the placenta that can reduce the amount of oxygen supplied to the body. This may lead to inhibition of growth among babies.

Pre-eclampsia

One significant cause of low birth weight is pre-eclampsia which brings with it high blood pressure and protein in the urine. This disease is dangerous because it is not very well understood by modern science. It mostly affects older moms, first-time moms and moms with multiple children. This disease cuts off nutrients to infants and causes deadly seizures among mothers. Immediate delivery is the only definite way to save both mom and baby. Other symptoms of pre-eclampsia include swelling in the hands, face or feet, blurred vision, face or feet, and abdominal pain.

Stress

Pregnancy is a sensitive time for both women and children. In pregnancy, women’s bodies pump 40-50% more blood than usual, with their hearts working 30-50% harder, making them feel tired and uncomfortable. Also, many pregnant women work for a living, some often putting in long work hours and standing for long durations. The toiling can add extra stress to pregnancy, interfering with foetal growth and full-term delivery. Other factors that can create stress during pregnancy are exposure to harmful chemicals or a lack of emotional support from family and friends.

Taking the right precautions during pregnancy is essential to ensure the good health of both the mother and the child during pregnancy. The above-stated reasons can be critical contributors towards low birth weight in newborns. Ensuring proper nutrition and the right care for both the mother and the child will help reduce the probability of the baby being underweight on delivery.

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Low birth weight is a term used to describe babies who are born weighing less than 2,500 grams (5 pounds, 8 ounces). Some babies with low birth weight are healthy, even though they’re small. However, being low in birth weight can cause serious health problems for some babies. A baby with low birth weight may have trouble eating, gaining weight, and fighting off infections. Some low birth weight babies may have long-term health problems, too.

When it comes to low birth weight in newborns, the primary causative factor is usually premature birth, which is before 37 weeks gestation. A baby that has been born early often gets less time in the mother’s uterus to grow and gain weight. Most of the foetus’s weight is gained during the latter part of the mother’s pregnancy. However, there can also be other factors that can lead to low birth weight in infants.

Let’s look at the top 5 factors that can, directly and indirectly, lead to low birth weight in newborns.

Multiple deliveries

If a mom is carrying twins, triplets, or more than three infants, the probability of the baby being underweight increases significantly. Multiple pregnancies can lead to excess stress on the uterus because the babies trying to share the available nutrition.

Foetal Infections

Some viral and parasitic infections can lead to foetal problems like slow growth or even birth defects. Following are some infections that one should be aware of:

  • Toxoplasmosis: Infection with this parasite during pregnancy is often associated with loss of hearing or sight and even brain defects.
  • Chickenpox: Being exposed to this virus during the first or second trimester is associated with suffering from congenital varicella syndrome, which can include scarring, limb malformation, growth problems, and mental disabilities.
  • Rubella: Also called German Measles, it can cause birth defects like heart problems, sight, hearing, and mental retardation.
  • Cytomegalovirus: This is a common herpes virus that is present in bodily fluids. It has been associated with disabilities like neural tube defects and Down syndrome.

Alcohol Consumption

Consuming alcohol or other drugs during pregnancy can be extremely dangerous as they release chemicals into the placenta that can reduce the amount of oxygen supplied to the body. This may lead to inhibition of growth among babies.

Pre-eclampsia

One significant cause of low birth weight is pre-eclampsia which brings with it high blood pressure and protein in the urine. This disease is dangerous because it is not very well understood by modern science. It mostly affects older moms, first-time moms and moms with multiple children. This disease cuts off nutrients to infants and causes deadly seizures among mothers. Immediate delivery is the only definite way to save both mom and baby. Other symptoms of pre-eclampsia include swelling in the hands, face or feet, blurred vision, face or feet, and abdominal pain.

Stress

Pregnancy is a sensitive time for both women and children. In pregnancy, women’s bodies pump 40-50% more blood than usual, with their hearts working 30-50% harder, making them feel tired and uncomfortable. Also, many pregnant women work for a living, some often putting in long work hours and standing for long durations. The toiling can add extra stress to pregnancy, interfering with foetal growth and full-term delivery. Other factors that can create stress during pregnancy are exposure to harmful chemicals or a lack of emotional support from family and friends.

Taking the right precautions during pregnancy is essential to ensure the good health of both the mother and the child during pregnancy. The above-stated reasons can be critical contributors towards low birth weight in newborns. Ensuring proper nutrition and the right care for both the mother and the child will help reduce the probability of the baby being underweight on delivery.

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Top 5 Causes of Low Birth Weight in Newborns

Top 5 Causes of Low Birth Weight in Newborns

March 18, 2020

Low birth weight is a term used to describe babies wh...

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No matter what one says or thinks, someone has got to cover this topic. With a lot of passion and a lot less yuck.
Baby poop usually comprises dejected broken-down food, undigested particles and other aliens that might have entered a baby’s gut somehow, bile, microbes like bacteria, etc. Bile is what impacts the faeces its characteristic colour.
Breastfed babies might have diverse poop colours and consistencies depending on what the mother has ingested. If she has taken a more fluid diet or ample water the previous day, her child will be passing out watery faeces. Thereby, the normalcy and abnormality of baby poop (which works much differently from Mama poop) depend on various factors.

If your newborn’s or infant’s poop matches any of the following descriptions, you need not worry.

  • Normal poop colour might range from anything like dirty green to chrome yellow or different shades of ochre or brown. It all depends on the diet. For instance, a formula-fed baby might have yellow ochre poop in the initial days.
  • The consistency of normal baby poop is just as varied. It might be thick or mushy and even watery. Too watery might be a warning sign but as long as things look fine otherwise, your baby can ‘keep calm and poop’.
  • The odour now! A slightly foul or sour odour is an ‘okay’ but stronger than that in the early days of infancy might indicate that the faeces have played with bacteria for a longer time in the gut.
  • Frequency of pooping isn’t much of a factor either, as long as the baby looks comfortable. Unless it’s less than one a week for breastfed babies, it might not be counted as constipation.

Now the red alerts, in case of baby poop:

  • If pooping is a painful process and your baby might be screaming or bleeding while doing it.
  • If the poop colour is white, meaning meagre or no secretion of bile and black, meaning RBCs digested from the gut.
  • If there is mucus or phlegm with the poop.
  • If your baby’s poop is changing form, including colour, consistency or duration after feeding him a certain food. This might indicate an intolerance.
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No matter what one says or thinks, someone has got to cover this topic. With a lot of passion and a lot less yuck.
Baby poop usually comprises dejected broken-down food, undigested particles and other aliens that might have entered a baby’s gut somehow, bile, microbes like bacteria, etc. Bile is what impacts the faeces its characteristic colour.
Breastfed babies might have diverse poop colours and consistencies depending on what the mother has ingested. If she has taken a more fluid diet or ample water the previous day, her child will be passing out watery faeces. Thereby, the normalcy and abnormality of baby poop (which works much differently from Mama poop) depend on various factors.

If your newborn’s or infant’s poop matches any of the following descriptions, you need not worry.

  • Normal poop colour might range from anything like dirty green to chrome yellow or different shades of ochre or brown. It all depends on the diet. For instance, a formula-fed baby might have yellow ochre poop in the initial days.
  • The consistency of normal baby poop is just as varied. It might be thick or mushy and even watery. Too watery might be a warning sign but as long as things look fine otherwise, your baby can ‘keep calm and poop’.
  • The odour now! A slightly foul or sour odour is an ‘okay’ but stronger than that in the early days of infancy might indicate that the faeces have played with bacteria for a longer time in the gut.
  • Frequency of pooping isn’t much of a factor either, as long as the baby looks comfortable. Unless it’s less than one a week for breastfed babies, it might not be counted as constipation.

Now the red alerts, in case of baby poop:

  • If pooping is a painful process and your baby might be screaming or bleeding while doing it.
  • If the poop colour is white, meaning meagre or no secretion of bile and black, meaning RBCs digested from the gut.
  • If there is mucus or phlegm with the poop.
  • If your baby’s poop is changing form, including colour, consistency or duration after feeding him a certain food. This might indicate an intolerance.
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Baby Poop – What’s Normal & What is Not?

Baby Poop – What’s Normal & What is Not?

September 10, 2018

No matter what one says or thinks, someon...

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            [blog_title] => What is Baby Constipation ?
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Constipation, as such, refers to infrequent bowel movements. However, baby constipation is somewhat different from adults. How to know whether your baby is having constipation or not? If your child has gone without bowel movements for quite a few days and is then passing out hard poop, he or she might be having constipation. Constipation doesn’t simply depend on the duration between poops but also the consistency.

How to Prevent Baby Constipation?

There are a few natural or prescribed ways to prevent constipation.

  • Make your baby exercise a bit daily.
  • Massage his or her belly lightly.
  • If your baby is older than a month, make him or her drink a little prune juice along with breast milk or formula diet.

The next question buzzing on your mind must be ‘what if’. What if your baby is constipated? Do you need to rush to the Doctor at once with your baby’s empty diapers? Is baby constipation really serious?
The answer is no. Your infant is still a newly born flower slowly adjusting to the sunlight. He or she is getting used to new food items daily through the breast milk that he or she sucks. So, it’s normal for them to take a longer time in getting some extra foreign foods turned into poop.

What are the signs that your baby is constipated?

These are the red alerts that you should look out for when you suspect baby constipation.

  • When a baby is crying, screaming or showing other relevant signs of discomfort before or during pooping.
  • Dry, hard lumps of poop that are hard to pass out.
  • The foul smell of poop denotes the greater time the faeces spent in the gut.
  • Less than three bowel movements in 7 days.
  • Tough protruding belly.
  • Less than normal appetite.

Ways to Relieve Baby Constipation

There are a few tips that you can follow to relieve your baby from constipation. Some are:

  • Increase your baby’s daily dose of water consumption.
  • Give him or her a bath in lukewarm water.
  • Make him or her do the ‘bicycle legs’ exercise. This helps very often to ease baby constipation.
  • Also, feed him or her foods with a higher degree of roughage.
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Constipation, as such, refers to infrequent bowel movements. However, baby constipation is somewhat different from adults. How to know whether your baby is having constipation or not? If your child has gone without bowel movements for quite a few days and is then passing out hard poop, he or she might be having constipation. Constipation doesn’t simply depend on the duration between poops but also the consistency.

How to Prevent Baby Constipation?

There are a few natural or prescribed ways to prevent constipation.

  • Make your baby exercise a bit daily.
  • Massage his or her belly lightly.
  • If your baby is older than a month, make him or her drink a little prune juice along with breast milk or formula diet.

The next question buzzing on your mind must be ‘what if’. What if your baby is constipated? Do you need to rush to the Doctor at once with your baby’s empty diapers? Is baby constipation really serious?
The answer is no. Your infant is still a newly born flower slowly adjusting to the sunlight. He or she is getting used to new food items daily through the breast milk that he or she sucks. So, it’s normal for them to take a longer time in getting some extra foreign foods turned into poop.

What are the signs that your baby is constipated?

These are the red alerts that you should look out for when you suspect baby constipation.

  • When a baby is crying, screaming or showing other relevant signs of discomfort before or during pooping.
  • Dry, hard lumps of poop that are hard to pass out.
  • The foul smell of poop denotes the greater time the faeces spent in the gut.
  • Less than three bowel movements in 7 days.
  • Tough protruding belly.
  • Less than normal appetite.

Ways to Relieve Baby Constipation

There are a few tips that you can follow to relieve your baby from constipation. Some are:

  • Increase your baby’s daily dose of water consumption.
  • Give him or her a bath in lukewarm water.
  • Make him or her do the ‘bicycle legs’ exercise. This helps very often to ease baby constipation.
  • Also, feed him or her foods with a higher degree of roughage.
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What is Baby Constipation ?

What is Baby Constipation ?

September 9, 2018

Constipation, as such, refers to infreque...

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            [blog_title] => Atopic Dermatitis in Children
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Atopic dermatitis (AD), commonly referred to as eczema, is a chronic ailment of the skin characterised by itchy and dry skin surface. The term atopic refers to those diseases that are caused by allergic reactions, while dermatitis is a condition affecting the skin.

The most widely noticeable symptoms are itchy and red rashes, which are affected by internal and external factors that ultimately increase blood flow, causing inflammation and an urge to itch. It is hard to resist the urge to itch the affected area, and while it may provide relief at the moment, it can worsen the inflammation and lead to more severe skin infections. More specific symptoms differ with age.

  • In Infants

Newborn babies can experience rashes on the scalp or cheeks, and even bubbling and fluid leakage from the rash. The dry and itchy skin can cause difficulty in sleeping, and infants may develop infections from scratching.

  • In Children

Older children may notice rashes on their elbows, knees or both, and scaly patches on the edges of the rashes. Their skin may feel leathery and thick, and the rashes could even surface on their face and neck, especially around the eyes. The skin could also become lighter or darker in some spots.

Read Also – Ensuring Healthy Motherhood In Body And Mind

The American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) says that 90% of people who develop AD do so before the age of 5, and it is rare for someone to develop it in adulthood if they did not have it as a child. It has a strong genetic contribution, and a patient with atopic dermatitis will most likely have a family member with the same disease, asthma and allergies of some sort.

Doctors diagnose atopic dermatitis by enquiring about your child’s symptoms and medical history. While there is no specific test for diagnosing AD, doctors will order blood tests to check for levels of immunoglobulin (IgE), which is very high in children with AD. Other tests may be conducted on the skin to check for allergies or any other unknown conditions.

While there is no cure for atopic dermatitis, the condition can be managed depending on the severity, by controlling the redness and swelling, adding moisture and preventing the spread of infections. Some measures for the same include avoiding irritants specified by the doctor, regular baths in lukewarm water, and use of good quality moisturisers. Other options include over-the-counter ointments or antibiotics, antihistamines and in some cases phototherapy.

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Atopic dermatitis (AD), commonly referred to as eczema, is a chronic ailment of the skin characterised by itchy and dry skin surface. The term atopic refers to those diseases that are caused by allergic reactions, while dermatitis is a condition affecting the skin.

The most widely noticeable symptoms are itchy and red rashes, which are affected by internal and external factors that ultimately increase blood flow, causing inflammation and an urge to itch. It is hard to resist the urge to itch the affected area, and while it may provide relief at the moment, it can worsen the inflammation and lead to more severe skin infections. More specific symptoms differ with age.

  • In Infants

Newborn babies can experience rashes on the scalp or cheeks, and even bubbling and fluid leakage from the rash. The dry and itchy skin can cause difficulty in sleeping, and infants may develop infections from scratching.

  • In Children

Older children may notice rashes on their elbows, knees or both, and scaly patches on the edges of the rashes. Their skin may feel leathery and thick, and the rashes could even surface on their face and neck, especially around the eyes. The skin could also become lighter or darker in some spots.

Read Also – Ensuring Healthy Motherhood In Body And Mind

The American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) says that 90% of people who develop AD do so before the age of 5, and it is rare for someone to develop it in adulthood if they did not have it as a child. It has a strong genetic contribution, and a patient with atopic dermatitis will most likely have a family member with the same disease, asthma and allergies of some sort.

Doctors diagnose atopic dermatitis by enquiring about your child’s symptoms and medical history. While there is no specific test for diagnosing AD, doctors will order blood tests to check for levels of immunoglobulin (IgE), which is very high in children with AD. Other tests may be conducted on the skin to check for allergies or any other unknown conditions.

While there is no cure for atopic dermatitis, the condition can be managed depending on the severity, by controlling the redness and swelling, adding moisture and preventing the spread of infections. Some measures for the same include avoiding irritants specified by the doctor, regular baths in lukewarm water, and use of good quality moisturisers. Other options include over-the-counter ointments or antibiotics, antihistamines and in some cases phototherapy.

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Atopic Dermatitis in Children

Atopic Dermatitis in Children

September 8, 2018

Atopic dermatitis (AD), commonly referred...

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            [blog_title] => A Spotlight on Common Ear, Nose and Throat Problems in Toddlers
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Someone wise once said that your sense organs are the windows and doors to life. True enough! Whenever they are in a blur and not functioning as efficiently as they should, life gets miserable. Just as if on cue, your nose, ears and throat are most easily affected by infections and external agents. In toddlers, the rate of infection in these sense organs is maximum because they are more vulnerable and prone to diseases due to underdeveloped immunity.
In this post, you will learn about some of the most common problems in the ear, nose and throat that might strike your toddler out of the blue and you are often left wondering about what precaution you did not take.

Common Problems that Might Hit the Ear

  • Glue ear: In this, the ears may fill up with a thick fluid usually following a middle ear infection. Usually, antibiotics are enough to clear the pus but in serious cases, your kid might need an operation. Exposure to this condition decreases as the child grows older.
  • Wax problems: In this condition, the toddler’s ears might fill up with earwax (cerumen). This wax is usually removed by the Doctor with the aid of a syringe.
  • Hearing loss: Relax! This isn’t as serious as it sounds. Temporary hearing loss may be triggered by a sudden infection in the middle ear that may or may not seek medical attention.

Common Problems that Might Hit the Nos

  • Sinusitis: This is a term that describes inflammation, swelling or infection of the sinuses. It may even take serious turns in which case there is accumulation of excess pus in the nasal chamber and demands medical attention.
  • Nasal allergies: Nasal allergies cause an exaggerated response of the immune system to certain foreign agents. Symptoms include rashes, itching, watery eyes, nasal obstruction, etc.

Common Problems that Might hit the throat

  • Sore throat: Easily the most common throat problem in toddlers. Symptoms include difficulty in swallowing, red and white patches on the throat, headaches and even fever.
  • Pharyngitis and Tonsillitis: They cause inflammation in the throat. In pharyngitis, the throat is affected while in tonsillitis, the tonsils are affected. In case both are affected, it’s called pharyngotonsillitis.
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Someone wise once said that your sense organs are the windows and doors to life. True enough! Whenever they are in a blur and not functioning as efficiently as they should, life gets miserable. Just as if on cue, your nose, ears and throat are most easily affected by infections and external agents. In toddlers, the rate of infection in these sense organs is maximum because they are more vulnerable and prone to diseases due to underdeveloped immunity.
In this post, you will learn about some of the most common problems in the ear, nose and throat that might strike your toddler out of the blue and you are often left wondering about what precaution you did not take.

Common Problems that Might Hit the Ear

  • Glue ear: In this, the ears may fill up with a thick fluid usually following a middle ear infection. Usually, antibiotics are enough to clear the pus but in serious cases, your kid might need an operation. Exposure to this condition decreases as the child grows older.
  • Wax problems: In this condition, the toddler’s ears might fill up with earwax (cerumen). This wax is usually removed by the Doctor with the aid of a syringe.
  • Hearing loss: Relax! This isn’t as serious as it sounds. Temporary hearing loss may be triggered by a sudden infection in the middle ear that may or may not seek medical attention.

Common Problems that Might Hit the Nos

  • Sinusitis: This is a term that describes inflammation, swelling or infection of the sinuses. It may even take serious turns in which case there is accumulation of excess pus in the nasal chamber and demands medical attention.
  • Nasal allergies: Nasal allergies cause an exaggerated response of the immune system to certain foreign agents. Symptoms include rashes, itching, watery eyes, nasal obstruction, etc.

Common Problems that Might hit the throat

  • Sore throat: Easily the most common throat problem in toddlers. Symptoms include difficulty in swallowing, red and white patches on the throat, headaches and even fever.
  • Pharyngitis and Tonsillitis: They cause inflammation in the throat. In pharyngitis, the throat is affected while in tonsillitis, the tonsils are affected. In case both are affected, it’s called pharyngotonsillitis.
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A Spotlight on Common Ear, Nose and Throat Problems in Toddlers

A Spotlight on Common Ear, Nose and Throat Problems in Toddlers

September 4, 2018

Someone wise once said that your sense or...

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            [blog_title] => Introduction Bilirubin Encephalopathy
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Dr Gaurav Jawa, Consultant Neonatologist- Apollo Cradle Royale

This case describes a baby who was brought to Apollo Cradle Royale in the middle of the night with yellow discolouration of the body till soles and an outside Serum Bilirubin report of 38 mg/dl. The baby had decreased feeding and vomiting after a feed. The baby was showing signs of stage 1 Bilirubin encephalopathy, suggestive of bilirubin crossing over into the brain.

The baby was born to a G2 mother at 34 weeks gestation by normal vaginal delivery at a nursing home in Faridabad after an uneventful antenatal period. The baby had cried immediately after birth and was discharged after 1 day. Mother was O negative and baby was B positive.

On examination, the baby had a weak cry and poor reflexes with yellow discolouration to the soles, but other systemic examinations were normal. The baby was admitted to NICU and IV fluid and Double surface phototherapy were started after sending relevant investigations. Given the very high Serum Bilirubin (38 mg/dl) and clinical evaluation, the decision was taken to arrange for double volume exchange transfusion and a blood sample from the infant and mother was sent to the blood bank Double Volume exchange Transfusion was done under aseptic precaution through the umbilical vein and umbilical artery catheterization. Antibiotic cover was given and later stopped once the blood tests showed no signs of infection. A repeat serum bilirubin post-exchange after 6 hrs came down to 22.2 mg/dl, which came down further to 6.9 after 24 hrs. when the baby was taken off from phototherapy. Feeds were started through an orogastric tube initially I/V/O persistent vomiting which was gradually increased to full paladai and breast feed which the baby accepted well. The baby was discharged in a stable condition.

The blood bank's detailed report suggested an incompatibility of Anti D as well as Anti E antigens against red blood cells, which could explain aggravated jaundice levels. On follow-up examination now till 6 months ago, the baby was normal with no signs of neurological impairment.

Introduction
Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) affects an estimated 3 in 100,000 to 80 in 100,000 patients annually with less than 10% requiring intrauterine transfusion.

Common causes of hemolytic disease of the newborn

  • Rh system antibodies( Anti D, Anti E)
  • ABO system antibodies
  • Kell system antibodies

HDN due to Rh isoimmunization, or blood group incompatibility, occurs when fetal red blood cells (RBCs), which possess an antigen that the mother lacks, cross the placenta into the maternal circulation, where they stimulate antibody production. The antibodies return to the fetal circulation and result in RBC destruction. Prolonged hemolysis leads to severe anaemia, which stimulates fetal erythropoiesis in the liver, spleen, bone marrow, and extramedullary sites, such as the skin and placenta. Destruction of RBCs releases heme that is converted to unconjugated bilirubin.

HDN due to other antibodies
Clinically significant allo-antibodies other than anti-D such as anti-E, anti-K, and anti-c occur in 1:300 pregnancies and the risk of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) caused by these antibodies is 1:500. HDFN caused by anti-E may be moderate or severe in its presentation and brings to attention the necessity of introducing antibody screening for pregnant women as part of the antenatal care to look for significant alloantibodies other than anti-D.

Clinical presentation of HDN varies from mild jaundice and anaemia to hydrops fetalis (with ascites, pleural and pericardial effusions). Risks during labour and delivery include asphyxia and splenic rupture.

Postnatal problems include:

  • Asphyxia
  • Pulmonary hypertension
  • Pallor (due to anaemia) Edema (hydrops, due to low serum albumin)
  • Respiratory distress
  • Coagulopathies (platelets & clotting factors)
  • Jaundice and Kernicterus (from hyperbilirubinemia)

Hemolytic disease of newborn if not treated timely can also lead to severe jaundice causing bilirubin encephalopathy

Bilirubin encephalopathy (BE), is a neurological condition that occurs when an infant has severe jaundice. In the early stage, it may cause symptoms like severe jaundice, poor sucking or feeding, lethargy (extreme sleepiness), and a lack of startle reflexes but later on, it causes hyperextended or arched back, shrill crying, seizures, muscle rigidity or arched back coma.

Prognosis
Overall survival is 85-90% but reduced for hydropic fetuses by 15%. Most survivors of all immunized gestation are intact neurologically.

Bilirubin encephalopathy (BE), is a neurological condition that occurs when an infant has severe jaundice.

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Dr Gaurav Jawa, Consultant Neonatologist- Apollo Cradle Royale

This case describes a baby who was brought to Apollo Cradle Royale in the middle of the night with yellow discolouration of the body till soles and an outside Serum Bilirubin report of 38 mg/dl. The baby had decreased feeding and vomiting after a feed. The baby was showing signs of stage 1 Bilirubin encephalopathy, suggestive of bilirubin crossing over into the brain.

The baby was born to a G2 mother at 34 weeks gestation by normal vaginal delivery at a nursing home in Faridabad after an uneventful antenatal period. The baby had cried immediately after birth and was discharged after 1 day. Mother was O negative and baby was B positive.

On examination, the baby had a weak cry and poor reflexes with yellow discolouration to the soles, but other systemic examinations were normal. The baby was admitted to NICU and IV fluid and Double surface phototherapy were started after sending relevant investigations. Given the very high Serum Bilirubin (38 mg/dl) and clinical evaluation, the decision was taken to arrange for double volume exchange transfusion and a blood sample from the infant and mother was sent to the blood bank Double Volume exchange Transfusion was done under aseptic precaution through the umbilical vein and umbilical artery catheterization. Antibiotic cover was given and later stopped once the blood tests showed no signs of infection. A repeat serum bilirubin post-exchange after 6 hrs came down to 22.2 mg/dl, which came down further to 6.9 after 24 hrs. when the baby was taken off from phototherapy. Feeds were started through an orogastric tube initially I/V/O persistent vomiting which was gradually increased to full paladai and breast feed which the baby accepted well. The baby was discharged in a stable condition.

The blood bank's detailed report suggested an incompatibility of Anti D as well as Anti E antigens against red blood cells, which could explain aggravated jaundice levels. On follow-up examination now till 6 months ago, the baby was normal with no signs of neurological impairment.

Introduction
Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) affects an estimated 3 in 100,000 to 80 in 100,000 patients annually with less than 10% requiring intrauterine transfusion.

Common causes of hemolytic disease of the newborn

  • Rh system antibodies( Anti D, Anti E)
  • ABO system antibodies
  • Kell system antibodies

HDN due to Rh isoimmunization, or blood group incompatibility, occurs when fetal red blood cells (RBCs), which possess an antigen that the mother lacks, cross the placenta into the maternal circulation, where they stimulate antibody production. The antibodies return to the fetal circulation and result in RBC destruction. Prolonged hemolysis leads to severe anaemia, which stimulates fetal erythropoiesis in the liver, spleen, bone marrow, and extramedullary sites, such as the skin and placenta. Destruction of RBCs releases heme that is converted to unconjugated bilirubin.

HDN due to other antibodies
Clinically significant allo-antibodies other than anti-D such as anti-E, anti-K, and anti-c occur in 1:300 pregnancies and the risk of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) caused by these antibodies is 1:500. HDFN caused by anti-E may be moderate or severe in its presentation and brings to attention the necessity of introducing antibody screening for pregnant women as part of the antenatal care to look for significant alloantibodies other than anti-D.

Clinical presentation of HDN varies from mild jaundice and anaemia to hydrops fetalis (with ascites, pleural and pericardial effusions). Risks during labour and delivery include asphyxia and splenic rupture.

Postnatal problems include:

  • Asphyxia
  • Pulmonary hypertension
  • Pallor (due to anaemia) Edema (hydrops, due to low serum albumin)
  • Respiratory distress
  • Coagulopathies (platelets & clotting factors)
  • Jaundice and Kernicterus (from hyperbilirubinemia)

Hemolytic disease of newborn if not treated timely can also lead to severe jaundice causing bilirubin encephalopathy

Bilirubin encephalopathy (BE), is a neurological condition that occurs when an infant has severe jaundice. In the early stage, it may cause symptoms like severe jaundice, poor sucking or feeding, lethargy (extreme sleepiness), and a lack of startle reflexes but later on, it causes hyperextended or arched back, shrill crying, seizures, muscle rigidity or arched back coma.

Prognosis
Overall survival is 85-90% but reduced for hydropic fetuses by 15%. Most survivors of all immunized gestation are intact neurologically.

Bilirubin encephalopathy (BE), is a neurological condition that occurs when an infant has severe jaundice.

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Introduction Bilirubin Encephalopathy

Introduction Bilirubin Encephalopathy

May 4, 2018

Dr Gaurav Jawa, Consulta...

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            [blog_title] => Infant sleep patterns
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One of the many subjects that worries new parents is whether their newborn infant is getting quality sleep. This not only refers to the duration of their sleep but also the frequency of their naps and the positions that they adopt while they nap. Speaking of sleep duration, here is a rough chart of how much your baby should be sleeping at different stages of infancy:

Newborn – 4 months
Total Sleep: 16-18 hours
Night-time Sleep: 8-9 hours
Naps: 7-9 hours (3-5 naps)

4 months – 12 months
Total Sleep: 12-16 hours
Night-time Sleep: 9-10 hours
Naps: 4-5 hours (2-3 naps)

1 year – 2 years
Total Sleep: 11-14 hours
Night-time Sleep: 11 hours
Naps: 2-3 hours (2 naps)

Conditioning a baby to self-soothe is very important because it helps them fall asleep on their own when they wake up abruptly in the middle of the night. The best way to do this is to put your baby down when he/she is drowsy but still awake. This will reduce their dependency on you when it comes to falling asleep. Also, avoid habituating the baby to being rocked or fed to sleep. This will only condition their mind to associate those actions with sleep and they will not be able to fall asleep if those actions are not repeated every time they are drowsy.

Changes in your baby’s activity as he/she grows up will most affect their sleep patterns too. For example, a baby that used to sleep through the night until a week ago might suddenly start waking up multiple times in the middle of the night. This is related to them beginning to turn over, crawl or walk. Just like how varying physical activity affects our sleep habits and patterns, a baby's physical activity has the same impact. Do not worry or panic during these changes, just stick to the routines that have worked for the baby and they will adapt. Infants are much stronger than most people think!

Keeping the infant safe during sleep is another major concern for new parents.

Follow these simple guidelines to ensure their safety during nap time:

  1. Make sure that your baby sleeps on his / her back until the first birthday.
  2. Use a firm sleeping surface.
  3. Keep your baby’s sleep area in your room, or as close to you as possible for the first 6 months to a year.
  4. Never lay your baby down on a sofa, couch or furniture that doesn’t have protective edges.
  5. Soft objects such as pillows, rugs and linen could suffocate the infant when you aren’t paying attention. Keep such objects away from the sleeping area.
  6. Swaddling should only be done when the baby is on its back and should never be too tight or too loose. When you feel that the baby has started trying to roll over, you should stop swaddling as it discourages the natural movements that the baby is trying to make.

Quality sleep and quality nutrition go hand-in-hand where a baby’s optimum development is concerned. To learn more about the right nutrition for your baby, read our blog on the subject.

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One of the many subjects that worries new parents is whether their newborn infant is getting quality sleep. This not only refers to the duration of their sleep but also the frequency of their naps and the positions that they adopt while they nap. Speaking of sleep duration, here is a rough chart of how much your baby should be sleeping at different stages of infancy:

Newborn – 4 months
Total Sleep: 16-18 hours
Night-time Sleep: 8-9 hours
Naps: 7-9 hours (3-5 naps)

4 months – 12 months
Total Sleep: 12-16 hours
Night-time Sleep: 9-10 hours
Naps: 4-5 hours (2-3 naps)

1 year – 2 years
Total Sleep: 11-14 hours
Night-time Sleep: 11 hours
Naps: 2-3 hours (2 naps)

Conditioning a baby to self-soothe is very important because it helps them fall asleep on their own when they wake up abruptly in the middle of the night. The best way to do this is to put your baby down when he/she is drowsy but still awake. This will reduce their dependency on you when it comes to falling asleep. Also, avoid habituating the baby to being rocked or fed to sleep. This will only condition their mind to associate those actions with sleep and they will not be able to fall asleep if those actions are not repeated every time they are drowsy.

Changes in your baby’s activity as he/she grows up will most affect their sleep patterns too. For example, a baby that used to sleep through the night until a week ago might suddenly start waking up multiple times in the middle of the night. This is related to them beginning to turn over, crawl or walk. Just like how varying physical activity affects our sleep habits and patterns, a baby's physical activity has the same impact. Do not worry or panic during these changes, just stick to the routines that have worked for the baby and they will adapt. Infants are much stronger than most people think!

Keeping the infant safe during sleep is another major concern for new parents.

Follow these simple guidelines to ensure their safety during nap time:

  1. Make sure that your baby sleeps on his / her back until the first birthday.
  2. Use a firm sleeping surface.
  3. Keep your baby’s sleep area in your room, or as close to you as possible for the first 6 months to a year.
  4. Never lay your baby down on a sofa, couch or furniture that doesn’t have protective edges.
  5. Soft objects such as pillows, rugs and linen could suffocate the infant when you aren’t paying attention. Keep such objects away from the sleeping area.
  6. Swaddling should only be done when the baby is on its back and should never be too tight or too loose. When you feel that the baby has started trying to roll over, you should stop swaddling as it discourages the natural movements that the baby is trying to make.

Quality sleep and quality nutrition go hand-in-hand where a baby’s optimum development is concerned. To learn more about the right nutrition for your baby, read our blog on the subject.

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Infant sleep patterns

Infant sleep patterns

August 8, 2017

One of the many subjects that worries new parents is whether their n...

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            [blog_title] => Neonatal Conjunctivitis And Tips To Prevent It
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Conjunctivitis is referred to as inflammation of the conjunctiva which is the thin tissue covering the white part of the eye and the inside portion of the eyelids. When conjunctivitis occurs in infants within the first 28 days of life, it is called neonatal conjunctivitis.

Neonatal conjunctivitis is usually caused by bacteria like Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumonia. During vaginal delivery, gonococcal or chlamydial infections are transmitted from the mother to the child and infect the eyes.

Causes of neonatal conjunctivitis:

  • lack of hygiene in the hospital
  • lack of awareness among mothers and guardians
  • childbirth in household settings under non-aseptic conditions
  • Chemical irritants can also cause conjunctivitis

Symptoms of Neonatal conjunctivitis:

The common symptoms of neonatal conjunctivitis are:

  • discharge from the eye
  • redness of the eye
  • swelling of the eyelid
  • Sometimes fever might be present in some babies
  • Traces of blood can be observed along with watery discharge if the infection is viral.

Diagnosis of Neonatal Conjunctivitis:

An eye exam is performed for the detection of neonatal conjunctivitis. If the eye does not look normal the following tests should be performed:

  • Culture of the watery discharge from the eye to look for bacteria or viruses
  • Slit-lamp exam to look for damage to the surface of the eyeball

Management of Neonatal Conjunctivitis:

Gentle warm massage between the eye and nasal area is done to relieve a blocked tear duct. This is done before the start of antibiotics. Antibiotics in the form of eye drops or ointment are prescribed for a week or until the culture report is clear. Saline eye drops are found to be beneficial for the removal of sticky yellow drainage.

Tips to prevent Neonatal Conjunctivitis:

The following tips can help prevent neonatal conjunctivitis:

  • Pregnant women with sexual diseases like chlamydia or gonococcal infections must be treated to minimize the risk of spreading disease during vaginal delivery
  • Use of eye drops into all infants’ eyes in the delivery room immediately after birth helps to prevent various infections
  • Pregnant women with active herpes sores at the time of delivery should undergo a C-section to prevent serious illness in the baby
  • It is important to get yourself treated for genital infection before or during pregnancy. Avoid getting pregnant if you or your partner has an uncured sexually transmitted disease
  • Maintain hygiene surrounding your baby to prevent bacterial conjunctivitis

Remember to apply eye drops prescribed to your child by the doctor

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Conjunctivitis is referred to as inflammation of the conjunctiva which is the thin tissue covering the white part of the eye and the inside portion of the eyelids. When conjunctivitis occurs in infants within the first 28 days of life, it is called neonatal conjunctivitis.

Neonatal conjunctivitis is usually caused by bacteria like Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumonia. During vaginal delivery, gonococcal or chlamydial infections are transmitted from the mother to the child and infect the eyes.

Causes of neonatal conjunctivitis:

  • lack of hygiene in the hospital
  • lack of awareness among mothers and guardians
  • childbirth in household settings under non-aseptic conditions
  • Chemical irritants can also cause conjunctivitis

Symptoms of Neonatal conjunctivitis:

The common symptoms of neonatal conjunctivitis are:

  • discharge from the eye
  • redness of the eye
  • swelling of the eyelid
  • Sometimes fever might be present in some babies
  • Traces of blood can be observed along with watery discharge if the infection is viral.

Diagnosis of Neonatal Conjunctivitis:

An eye exam is performed for the detection of neonatal conjunctivitis. If the eye does not look normal the following tests should be performed:

  • Culture of the watery discharge from the eye to look for bacteria or viruses
  • Slit-lamp exam to look for damage to the surface of the eyeball

Management of Neonatal Conjunctivitis:

Gentle warm massage between the eye and nasal area is done to relieve a blocked tear duct. This is done before the start of antibiotics. Antibiotics in the form of eye drops or ointment are prescribed for a week or until the culture report is clear. Saline eye drops are found to be beneficial for the removal of sticky yellow drainage.

Tips to prevent Neonatal Conjunctivitis:

The following tips can help prevent neonatal conjunctivitis:

  • Pregnant women with sexual diseases like chlamydia or gonococcal infections must be treated to minimize the risk of spreading disease during vaginal delivery
  • Use of eye drops into all infants’ eyes in the delivery room immediately after birth helps to prevent various infections
  • Pregnant women with active herpes sores at the time of delivery should undergo a C-section to prevent serious illness in the baby
  • It is important to get yourself treated for genital infection before or during pregnancy. Avoid getting pregnant if you or your partner has an uncured sexually transmitted disease
  • Maintain hygiene surrounding your baby to prevent bacterial conjunctivitis

Remember to apply eye drops prescribed to your child by the doctor

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Neonatal Conjunctivitis And Tips To Prevent It

Neonatal Conjunctivitis And Tips To Prevent It

January 18, 2017

Conjunctivitis is referred to as inflammation of the conjunctiva whi...

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            [blog_title] => Newborn Screening Test for Hearing Loss
            [metaTitle] => Newborn Screening Test for Hearing Loss
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One or two babies in every 1000 babies have permanent hearing loss in either one or both ears. There are certain factors which increase the risk of hearing loss in newborns. The factors include:

  • Illness of mother during pregnancy
  • Family history of hearing loss
  • Exposed to certain drugs which affect hearing

The baby’s development is affected significantly due to permanent hearing loss. Early detection of hearing loss in a newborn can help these babies to develop language, speech and communication skills.

Hearing screening tests should be done in infants with the following conditions:

  • Low birth weight/premature birth / Lack of oxygen or breathing problems at birth
  • High bilirubin levels (Jaundice)
  • Syndromes correlated with hearing loss
  • Abnormal head or face structures
  • Long time in mechanical ventilation
  • Infections such as Cytomegalovirus, syphilis, herpes or toxoplasmosis.

There are two different methods to test hearing loss in infants, and they are the automated auditory brainstem response (AABR) evaluations and the automated otoacoustic emission (AOAE) measures.

AOAE Test: The duration of the test is just a few minutes. A small soft-tipped earpiece is kept in the baby’s ear, and gentle clicking sounds are played. The inner part of the ear gives a response after the ear receives sound. Then screening equipment picks up the sound. The first test may not be successful all the time. The test results mean:

  • the baby was unsettled during the test
  • background noise was present
  • Baby has fluid or a temporary blockage in their ear

AABR Test: Another hearing test, the AABR test is also conducted to detect hearing loss in newborns. Three small sensors are placed on the baby’s head and neck. Now soft headphones are kept over the baby’s ears, and gentle clicking sounds are played. The duration of this test is between 5 to 15 minutes.

These hearing tests are not harmful to newborn babies. AOAE and AABR tests are accurate, noninvasive, and automated and it is not necessary to receive any observable response from the infant during these tests. The AOAE test is easy and cost-effective compared to the ABAR test.

If a newborn fails in the initial hearing screen test, it does not mean that the baby has permanent hearing loss. The following reasons could be responsible for the failure of a hearing screening test:

  • Presence of fluid inside the baby’s ear canal
  • Presence of background noise
  • Movement of the infant

The result of the hearing test is given immediately after the test. These screening tests do not pick up all types of permanent hearing loss. Sometimes children develop permanent hearing loss later. Hence it is important to monitor child’s hearing once they grow up.

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One or two babies in every 1000 babies have permanent hearing loss in either one or both ears. There are certain factors which increase the risk of hearing loss in newborns. The factors include:

  • Illness of mother during pregnancy
  • Family history of hearing loss
  • Exposed to certain drugs which affect hearing

The baby’s development is affected significantly due to permanent hearing loss. Early detection of hearing loss in a newborn can help these babies to develop language, speech and communication skills.

Hearing screening tests should be done in infants with the following conditions:

  • Low birth weight/premature birth / Lack of oxygen or breathing problems at birth
  • High bilirubin levels (Jaundice)
  • Syndromes correlated with hearing loss
  • Abnormal head or face structures
  • Long time in mechanical ventilation
  • Infections such as Cytomegalovirus, syphilis, herpes or toxoplasmosis.

There are two different methods to test hearing loss in infants, and they are the automated auditory brainstem response (AABR) evaluations and the automated otoacoustic emission (AOAE) measures.

AOAE Test: The duration of the test is just a few minutes. A small soft-tipped earpiece is kept in the baby’s ear, and gentle clicking sounds are played. The inner part of the ear gives a response after the ear receives sound. Then screening equipment picks up the sound. The first test may not be successful all the time. The test results mean:

  • the baby was unsettled during the test
  • background noise was present
  • Baby has fluid or a temporary blockage in their ear

AABR Test: Another hearing test, the AABR test is also conducted to detect hearing loss in newborns. Three small sensors are placed on the baby’s head and neck. Now soft headphones are kept over the baby’s ears, and gentle clicking sounds are played. The duration of this test is between 5 to 15 minutes.

These hearing tests are not harmful to newborn babies. AOAE and AABR tests are accurate, noninvasive, and automated and it is not necessary to receive any observable response from the infant during these tests. The AOAE test is easy and cost-effective compared to the ABAR test.

If a newborn fails in the initial hearing screen test, it does not mean that the baby has permanent hearing loss. The following reasons could be responsible for the failure of a hearing screening test:

  • Presence of fluid inside the baby’s ear canal
  • Presence of background noise
  • Movement of the infant

The result of the hearing test is given immediately after the test. These screening tests do not pick up all types of permanent hearing loss. Sometimes children develop permanent hearing loss later. Hence it is important to monitor child’s hearing once they grow up.

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Newborn Screening Test for Hearing Loss

Newborn Screening Test for Hearing Loss

January 18, 2017

One or two babies in every 1000 babies have permanent hearing loss i...

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