What is hypoglycemia/ hyperglycemia?

Hypoglycemia occurs when the blood sugar level drops below the range that is healthy for an individual (70mg/dL). This is due to too much insulin in the bloodstream. It is also referred to as "low blood sugar’ or "low blood glucose". It is common in people with Type I diabetes.  However, people without diabetes may also suffer from hypoglycemia.

Hyperglycemia on the contrary occurs when the level of sugar is quite high in the blood. This happens when the body has too little insulin or fails to use it correctly. People with or without diabetes may suffer from hyperglycemia. If untreated for a long time, it may induce damage to nerves, blood vessels, organs, and tissue.

Symptoms of Hypoglycemia

Symptoms of hypoglycemia may start quickly and differ from person to person. They provide warnings so that you can take action before your blood sugar level drops.

Signs of mild hypoglycemia include:

  1. Weakness and fatigue
  2. Trembling or shaking
  3. Sudden hunger (Polyphagia)
  4. Rapid heartbeat
  5. Blurred vision and dizziness

Signs of severe hypoglycemia include:

  1. Extreme tiredness
  2. Seizures or Convulsions
  3. Unconsciousness
  4. Slurred speech
  5. Blurred or double vision

Symptoms of Hyperglycemia

People suffering from hyperglycemia must be treated early, as it may lead to ketoacidosis in extreme conditions. If you have type 1 diabetes, then hyperglycemia may lead to the buildup of toxic acids in your blood. This condition may lead to a coma or death.

Early signs of hyperglycemia include:

  • Heightened thirst and/or hunger
  • Elevated blood sugar
  • Repeated urination (peeing)
  • Distorted vision
  • Headache

Some other symptoms of hyperglycemia include:

  • Higher fatigue
  • Weight loss
  • Slow recovery of cuts and sores
  • Vaginal and skin diseases or infections

What causes Hypoglycemia/Hyperglycemia?

Hypoglycemia may be caused by any of the following reasons:

  1. Wrong intake of insulin – Taking too much insulin will cause low blood glucose. Accidental injection of the wrong insulin or injecting directly into muscle may also lead to low blood sugar.
  2. Food gaps – Skipping meals and having a long food gap may induce low blood sugar in a person.
  3. Higher physical activity – Children with type 1 diabetes who perform vigorous exercise for an hour during the daytime may experience low glucose at night. The intensity, duration, and timing of the exercises must be kept in mind

Hyperglycemia causes in people having diabetes include:

  1. Incorrect dose of insulin: When the dose of insulin or oral diabetic medication is not appropriate according to your needs, you may develop hyperglycemia.
  2. Imbalanced carbohydrate intake – When the amount of carbohydrate intake is not balanced with the amount of insulin your body makes, you may develop high blood glucose.
  3. Less physical activity and higher stress – Less exercise than needed and higher physical and mental stress may cause hyperglycemia in a person due to an imbalance in insulin.


  1. Compliance - A patient must comply with the medical advice prescribed by the diabetologist at Apollo Clinic.
  2. Physical activity – Apollo Clinic’s fitness experts will prescribe an exercise regimen considering your daily food intake and medications. This will help you overcome diabetic issues.  
  3. Diabetic Tests and Monitoring – The diabetologists at Apollo will provide you with diabetic tests and educate you on self-monitoring. This will help the patient successfully control the consequences of diabetes.  


Do you feel extremely tired and weak all day long? Does your body crave food or water repeatedly, even after proper meals? Then it’s high time. You must consult a doctor as you are showing signs of altered blood glucose levels in your body.

Request an appointment at Apollo Cradle, Bengaluru - Jayanagar. Call 1860-500-1066 to book an appointment.

1. I have a family history of type 2 diabetes. Can I suffer from hyperglycemia?

Having a family history of type 2 diabetes increases the risk factors for hyperglycemia in an individual. It is recommended to test the blood glucose levels if any symptoms occur.

2. I am overweight and have high blood pressure. For a few days, I am feeling frequent urination. Should I visit a doctor?

It is highly recommended to consult a diabetologist if you feel too much thirst and have frequent urination. The doctors can best suggest the tests and remedies necessary to control your blood glucose.

3. How will I diagnose my blood sugar levels?

Consult a diabetologist at the Apollo Clinic and test your blood glucose levels by carrying out one or more diabetic blood tests.

4. I have diabetes. How can I keep control of my blood glucose levels?

People with diabetes must use medications or synthetic insulin and embrace lifestyle changes to keep a check on blood glucose levels.

5. Can I faint if my blood glucose level falls?

Hypoglycemia, or low blood glucose, can cause a person to lose consciousness. For immediate recovery, uptake of sugar is recommended followed by doctor consultation.

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