Pediatric Surgery & Urology: All you need to know


Urology is the branch of medical science that deals with the study, diagnosis and treatment of diseases associated with the urinary tract and male reproductive organs. Pediatric surgery involves the diagnosis, treatment and care of infants and children with certain congenital or acquired disorders. Thus, Pediatric Surgery and urology is the study, diagnosis, treatment and care of children having certain disorders of urinary and genital glands. A doctor dealing with this will be a pediatric surgeon. A pediatric surgeon has a speciality in dealing with disorders in kids. 

Diseases under Pediatric Surgery & Urology

Some of the diseases that a pediatric urologist might treat are as follows:

  • Kidney Stones
  • Pyelonephritis
  • UTI (Urinary Tract Infections)
  • Vesicoureteral reflux
  • Posterior urethral valves
  • Multicystic dysplastic kidney
  • Ectopic kidney
  • Ureterovesical obstruction
  • Polycystic kidney disease
  • Staghorn calculi
  1. Kidney Stones in Children

The primary cause of kidney stones is the increase in levels of calcium, phosphorus or oxalate in the urine. These in excess accumulate in the urinary tracts in the form of crystals.

Causes: Poor diet (high level of salt) can be one of the major causes of kidney stones in children.

Symptoms of Kidney Stones in Children:

  • Painful urination
  • Intense pain in abdominal regions
  • Frequent urination
  • UTI


The doctors will give medications to let the stones dissolve and pass out with urine. Moreover, they might prescribe some pain control medicines. 

  1. Multicystic Dysplastic Kidney

In this condition, a normal kidney is completely replaced by numerous cysts. This might affect either one or both of the kidneys of the baby. The prenatal ultrasound helps in identifying this disorder before birth. It is a rare phenomenon and occurs only once in every 4300 births.

Causes: The cause of this disorder involves abnormal foetal development.


For the treatment of this disease, the doctors might suggest a laparoscopic nephrectomy (removal of the affected kidney). During the surgery, the child will remain under general anaesthesia.

  1. Ectopic Kidney

Normally the kidneys are present in the middle of the back, on the sides of the spine and below the ribcage. However, in an ectopic kidney, one of the kidneys displaces to another part such as either below or above the normal position. 


It can be a congenital disorder resulting from the abnormal development of kidneys. The development of kidneys in the foetus occurs at 8 weeks of the gestation period. In abnormal cases, the kidneys fail to move to their normal position from the pelvis. It might stay in the lower abdominal region. It can also be due to abnormal development of the buds of the kidney. Any chemical reaction or illness can also result in this abnormal development.


If the kidney is not causing any problems or symptoms, then the doctors might suggest it be left untreated. The doctors might opt for surgical correction of the kidneys if there is any blockage. They might also perform the surgery if there is any potential for the development of complications in the urinary tract. 

To prevent and treat any of these disorders, you must consult a specialised Pediatrician or urologist for your children. 


Pediatric Surgery and urology is a special branch of medical science that is for the study, diagnosis, treatment and care of children with urological disorders. A paediatrician is a special doctor who examines and treats children. A urologist is a specialist in the field of diagnosing and treating urinary disorders and genital disorders in males. Several urological disorders affect children such as kidney stones, Multicystic Dysplastic Kidney, ectopic kidney etc.

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1. Name some of the most common pediatric surgeries.

Some of the most common pediatric surgeries include herniotomy, circumcision, repairing hernia of the belly button, appendicitis etc.

2. Name some of the most common urological surgeries.

Some of the most common urological surgeries are ureteroscopy, cystoscopy, vasectomy, penile plication etc.

3. State the meaning of pediatric surgery.

The surgery involves the diagnosis, surgery, and post-surgical care of children with congenital or acquired disorders in pediatric surgery. The disease concerning children can be of many types such as nephrotic or inflammatory.

4. Why choose a pediatrician for the children?

A pediatrician is a skilled and specially trained individual that has expertise in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital and acquired diseases in children. Therefore, it is necessary to consult a pediatrician for your children.

5. Does a child heal fast after the surgery?

There are chances that a child might heal faster after surgery under proper medical guidance.

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