Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU)

What is the NICU?

NICU is a section of the hospital that provides intense medical assistance to newborns. They have advanced technology to help the newborn adjust to and survive in an environment that is similar to their mother's womb. The expert medical staff and specialised medical experts treat newborns.

Who are the medical experts in the NICU?

Many different medical providers and doctors are experts in the NICU:


They are experts in caring for sick and premature babies. They are commonly called attending physicians who supervise pediatric fellows and residents, nurse practitioners and nurses.

Neonatal Fellows

They have extra training in caring for sick and premature babies.  The procedures needed for newborn care are performed by them.

Paediatric residents

They assist in the procedures for newborn care. They also help in directing the newborn child's care.

Neonatal nurse practitioners

They are registered nurses who have expertise in newborn care.

Respiratory Therapist

They provide respiratory support to a newborn who has difficulty breathing on their own. It includes the use of breathing machines and oxygen.


They are responsible for caring for babies' nutrition and calorie intake so that babies can grow well.

Lactation consultants

They provide assistance, guidance, and counselling in helping women and babies breastfeed. They have training and certification for that purpose.

Physical, occupational, and speech therapists

These specialists monitor a child's growth and development. They also assist in positioning and calming techniques. Babies learn to eat by mouth with the assistance of speech therapists.


They provide drugs and medicines to the babies in case if need them. The medicine check and dose are very important before giving medicines to babies.

What are the factors associated with babies needing NICU after birth?

Factors related to motherhood:

  • being under 16 years old or beyond 40 years old
  • usage of drugs or alcohol
  • Diabetes
  • elevated blood pressure (hypertension)
  • Bleeding
  • sexually transmissible conditions
  • Many pregnancies (twins, triplets, or more)
  • Inadequate or excessive amniotic fluid
  • premature membrane rupturing (also called the amniotic sac or bag of water)

Factors related to newborns:

  • the effects of oxygen deprivation on a baby's organ systems (fetal distress or birth asphyxia)
  • Breech delivery, or another unusual posture, occurs when the buttocks are delivered first.
  • During pregnancy, the amniotic fluid was invaded by the baby's first faeces (meconium).
  • A baby's neck has an umbilical cord wrapped around it (nuchal cord).
  • Caesarean section or forceps

Factors related to delivery or surgery for childbirth:

  • a child born with a gestational age of greater than 42 weeks and less than 37 weeks
  • less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces (2,500 grams) or more than 8 pounds, 13 ounces at birth (4,000 grams)
  • Small during the gestational period
  • In the birth room, medication or CPR
  • problems in utero
  • respiratory discomfort characterized by hurried, groaning, or stopped breathing (apnea)
  • a contagious illness like chlamydia, herpes, or group B streptococcus
  • Seizures
  • minimal blood sugar (hypoglycemia)
  • Requirement for IV (intravenous) treatment, medications, or more oxygen or monitoring
  • A blood transfusion or other specialised therapy is necessary.


The NICU is a hospital unit for newborns who need immediate medical care and assistance. These newborns are often born prematurely and have some infection or disease (which can be genetic). The NICU has modern technology that helps the newborn grow and develop. Medical experts ensure the proper newborn care to assist the babies.

Request an appointment at Apollo Cradle, Delhi-NCR - Chirag Enclave. Call 1860-500-1066 to book an appointment.

1. Who are the babies that need NICU?

Premature babies (those born before 37 weeks of pregnancy), newborns with low birthweights (less than 5.5 pounds), and infants with conditions requiring specialized care account for the majority of infants admitted to the NICU. Due to their propensity for being born sooner and smaller than newborns of a single birth, twins, triplets, and other multiples are frequently admitted to the NICU. The NICU also provides treatment for infants who have medical disorders, including heart issues, infections, or birth deformities.

2. How is premature birth caused?

Although there are several reasons why babies are born prematurely, in 50% of instances there is no known reason. Premature delivery can occasionally be brought on by the body's reaction to certain illnesses, such as those affecting the fetal membranes and amniotic fluid. In some instances, early induction results in prematurity because of maternal or fetal health issues.

3. How do parents and families get support when their child is in the NICU?

Social workers are for families and parents. They receive emotional support and information about the medical issues of their babies from the medical providers. They tend to basic needs like money, transportation or arranging home medical assistance.

4. How do lactation consultants provide neonatal care in the NICU?

Lactation consultants assist lactating mothers in pumping and maintaining their milk supply during the beginning of the breastfeeding procedure.

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