Intracranial Hemorrhage

Intracranial haemorrhage refers to any bleeding within the intracranial vault; it also includes the brain parenchyma and spaces surrounding the meninges.

There are four broad types of intracranial haemorrhage:

  • Epidural haemorrhage occurs when blood vessels on the dura mater's outer surface burst between the skull. Blood then leaks between the dura mater and the skull, which causes the mass to press on the brain.
  • Subdural haemorrhage: When a vessel traversing between the brain and skull is stretched, torn, or damaged due to any reason and begins to bleed into the subdural region.
  • Subarachnoid haemorrhage  
  • Intraparenchymal haemorrhage: It is bleeding into the brain parenchyma.

Each type of haemorrhage has a different set of causes.

Common Symptoms

After a week of an accident or injury, a patient may begin to show signs of intracranial haemorrhage. Signs include:

  • Worsening Headache
  • Vomiting
  • Dizziness
  • Confusion 
  • The quality of one's speech begins to deteriorate.
  • Slight paralysis

As blood starts to fill your head, you may experience some serious repercussions.

  • Lethargic mood
  • Seizures
  • Consciousness

What causes intracranial haemorrhage?

It is usually caused by a blow to the head, which could be for any reason. It might be due to a motor vehicle accident, sports injury, violent confrontation with someone, etc. Even if there are no marks on the outside, you could still have a serious injury inside. If you are an old person, even a mild head blow could result in serious conditions, especially if you are taking any blood thinner medicines.

Different types of haemorrhages may require different degrees of diagnosis. Some include:

Subdural Hemorrhage: This is caused by the rupture of blood vessels between the dura mater's outer covering and the brain. Different categories of subdural haemorrhage include:

  • Acute: This is the most severe injury and needs urgent treatment.
  • Subacute: Signs and symptoms may take up to a week to develop.
  • Chronic: This is the mildest of the haemorrhages. This type of haemorrhage may take months to appear.

Epidural haemorrhage: This is caused when the blood vessels outside the dura mater and the skull burst. The most common is trauma.

Intraparenchymal Hemorrhage occurs when blood accumulates between different parts of the brain. There can be many causes, which include trauma, tearing of the blood vessels, loose joint arteries, etc.

When should I see a doctor?

Intracranial haemorrhage is potentially fatal and requires immediate medical attention. You should consult a doctor if you experience any of the symptoms below after a blow to your head.

  • Loss of consciousness
  • Continuous Headache
  • Experience nausea, vomiting, and instability.

Treatments and remedies

There are different types of treatments for different types of haemorrhages.

Epidural haemorrhage: Advanced Trauma Life Support is used, including airway control, which ensures adequate ventilation and circulation. There may be chances for intubation.

Subdural Hemorrhage: The specified treatment for subdural haemorrhage is evacuation, but it also depends upon the size and location of the haemorrhage, and some incidents may also be watched for resolution.

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage has two types: Traumatic and Non-traumatic. If it is traumatic, medicines should be declared first. A consultation with a neurosurgeon should be considered. In a non-traumatic condition, the causes of haemorrhage should be ascertained and addressed.

Intraparenchymal Hemorrhage: It is life-threatening. The patient's treatment should start with the ABCs of the medicine and stabilise the patient. Treatment options include aggressive surgical evacuation, observation, etc.


Depending on the severity of the injury, this condition can range from acute to chronic.If you experience any of the symptoms listed above, see your doctor as soon as possible. Ignoring the implications may cause them to amplify. There is usually no prevention, as it can happen to anyone, but you should be careful in real-life situations and not indulge in any life-threatening activities.

Request an appointment at Apollo Cradle, Bengaluru - Brookefield. Call 1860-500-1066 to book an appointment.

1. How can we prevent intracranial haemorrhage?

To prevent or minimise the injury, wear a helmet and tell your kids to wear helmets at all costs when riding any kind of vehicle. Always buckle your seatbelts before driving a motor vehicle. Do so every time you ride. Keep your children from climbing unsteady objects, and be aware of your surroundings.

2. What precautions should be taken after a brain haemorrhage?

We should be disciplined regarding our diet. Exercising regularly could be beneficial. Never smoke any kind of drug, do not drink alcohol, or do any activity that can be harmful to your brain.

3. How long can a recovery take after an intracranial haemorrhage?

It highly depends on the area of damage, the size of the bleed, and the general health of the patient after the accident. In some cases, it could take a few days, while in others it could take several months.

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