What is polypectomy?

Polypectomy is the elimination or removal of a polyp. A polyp is an abnormal growth that begins in the tissue and extends into the hollow space. A polyp is common and unknown to the patients because of their small size. On growing bigger, they need to get operated because they alter blood flow and put pressure on organs. A polypectomy can be performed on any area of the body that develops polyps.

Types of polypectomy

Most common types of polypectomy are uterine polypectomy and colon polypectomy.

Uterine polypectomy

Uterine polypectomy is done to eliminate polyps in the endometrial tissue. Endometrial tissue is that lines the uterus. Polyps in this area are attached to the inner wall of the uterus that stretches into the uterine cavity. These happen due to hormonal factor and one can commonly have many polyps in their uterine in the age of menopause.

Symptoms of Uterine polyp include:

  • Irregular menstrual bleeding
  • Bleeding between period cycles
  • Unreasonably heavy blood flows during menstrual periods
  • Vaginal bleeding after menopause
  • Infertility

To check whether a woman has a polyp or not, doctors may perform tests like- Transvaginal ultrasound, hysteroscopy and endometrial biopsy. Medication and hysteroscopy are the two ways to treat the polyps.

If the size of a polyp is small then, it can be ignored, or medicated otherwise it needs surgery. This surgery is known as hysteroscopy.

Hysteroscopy

Hysteroscopic polypectomy

Uterine polyps are removed by a surgery known as hysteroscopic polypectomy. It is also used while diagnosing and treating the problems of the uterus and remove fibroids and polyps. The surgery can take less than five minutes to more than an hour. The length of the hysteroscopy depends on its diagnose and whether any additional surgery is needed or not. During the process, different methods for anaesthesia and pain control are used, according to the individual’s case. Sometimes, hysteroscopy can be performed without anaesthesia, using smaller hysteroscopes which do not require the expansion of cervical opening. Other cases may require local or general anaesthesia, as the situation demands. To facilitate insertion of the hysteroscope within the uterine cavity, a vaginal speculum is often inserted. If a hysteroscope is such a type that requires expansion of the cervical opening, it is done using surgical instruments. For the better view of the uterine cavity, doctors inject fluid or gas after the insertion of the hysteroscope.

 To control the pain and cramping, anti-inflammatory medications and acetaminophen are generally recommended by the doctors.

Women who are pregnant or have uterine/cervical cancer should not get hysteroscopy surgery because the abnormal position of the uterus and other obstacles makes it very difficult to perform the procedure.

Risks and side effects

  1. Light vaginal bleeding and some cramping are the usual side effects after the hysteroscopy surgery.
  2. Some patients can complain about reactions which can be due to anaesthetic factors.
  3. There are few chances that infection may happen due to medical and surgical complications.
  4. While performing the surgery, injury to the cervix, uterus, bowel or bladder can take place.

Benefits

If the procedure is not very serious then hospital stays are shorter.

  1. Usually, people get to recover in a short period of time.
  2. As there are no many side effects, less pain-relieving medicines are needed after surgery.
  3. Hysteroscopic surgery makes open abdominal surgery avoidable.

Colon polypectomy

Colon polyps are small growths on the inner lining of the colon or large intestine and are very common. The exact cause of the colon has not established yet but it may happen when they grow and split more than they should. Mostly, colons are harmless. But some can turn into colon cancer after a period of time and become deadly in later stages. Colon polyps are common, and anyone can get them, but certain conditions make it more likely to grow, which includes:

  • People who are overweight or obese
  • 50 or older age people
  • Regular smoking
  • If anyone had colon polyps or colon cancer before
  • Uncontrolled type 2 diabetes

Further, there are two types of colon polyps- Hyperplastic, which is unlikely to become cancer and Adenoma, which is likely to become cancerous after a certain stage, though not all adenomas will become harmful.

Symptoms of colon polyp:

  • Symptoms of colon polyp are rather confusing because they are not clear and can be associated with other diseases.
  •    Rectal bleeding.
  • Change in bowel movement and colour
  • Fatigue or shortness of breath.
  • Belly pain

Regular screening test of the colon is the best way to identify a colon polyp because its symptoms are not obvious in the early stages. Few screening tests are-

The colonoscopy uses a CT scan to view the colon.

 The virtual colonoscopy requires the same bowel preparation as a colonoscopy.

Flexible sigmoidoscopy in which a tube is inserted in your rectum to examine it.

Stool-based tests

Laparoscopy

Many polyps such as endometrioma can be found out surgically by laparoscopy. Laparoscopy is a surgical procedure that doctors use to view and diagnose the reproductive organs of a woman. In this process, a narrow tube is passed through a small cut in the abdomen, for the purpose of viewing which is known as a laparoscope. With the help of a laparoscope, the doctor can view the outer of the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, and its nearby organs.

Laparoscopy-assisted Polypectomy

This procedure is needed when a surgeon needs to operate on the whole section that contains polyp. It is a safe procedure which is needed in certain cases. In this, surgeons operate through 4 or 5 small holes while watching an enlarged image of the patient’s internal organs on a monitor. Sometimes other small cuts are also made to put another surgical instrument inside the patient’s body.

Risks and side effects

  1. Bleeding
  2. Infection due to the surgical process.
  3. A gap where the colon was connected back together.
  4. Cuts and damage to nearby organs.

Benefits

  1. Less abdominal pain
  2. One can recover fast and their stays in the hospital may be shorten
  3. It also results in a faster return to a solid-food diet and bowel function
  4. Patients can return to their normal day to day activity quicker.

The procedure of polypectomy can be one needs the best doctor and care. Apollo Cradle Brookefield is capable and equipped enough to handle these complex cases. Our experienced doctors have years of expertise in operating patients who are facing this abnormal health condition, whereas our nurses and technicians are proficient in taking your proper aftercare.